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Archive for the ‘Still Images’ Category

– contributed by Lizette R. Barton, reference archivist & facial hair aficionado.

Movember is a charitable organization that raises money and awareness for men’s health issues including prostate cancer, testicular cancer, and mental health and suicide prevention. One way they raise money is by encouraging men to enlist donations from friends and families as they grow moustaches throughout the month of November. It’s like a walkathon or a telethon. It’s a facial-hair-athon.

The Movember Foundation isn’t supporting this post or anything. But it’s a good reason as any to highlight some of the truly majestic moustaches from psychology’s history. Here are a few of my personal favorites.

Alfred Binet. The O.G. of intelligence testing. Check out that twirly moustache. I bet it has an intelligence quotient of at least 140.

Alfred Binet, CCHP Still Images collection

Genius moustache with near-genius accompanying beard!

 

Wikipedia tells me Floyd H. Allport, “…played a key role in the creation of social psychology as a legitimate field of behavioral science.” Whoa. Serious stuff from a serious ‘stache.

This individualistic moustache is a social force all its own

 

Check out Raymond Dodge’s moustache. Even that gigantic model brain on his Wesleyan University desk looks tiny in comparison.

Raymond Dodge_Wesleyan

This is where I tell you Dodge was the mentor of my historical boyfriend Walter R. Miles. Miles was clean-shaven. I won’t hold that against him.

 

Speaking of Raymond Dodge, take a look at all the moustaches in his 1896 class at  the University of Halle.

University of Halle 1896_WM

Old school moustaches. And plenty of them.

 

And more new school – check out the amazing goatees on these two 1979-1980 Nassau County Psychological Association executive board members.

Nassau County Psychological Association_1287_Folder9_001

Goatee AND pinstripes? Get outta here!

 

And as long as we’re kickin’ it (more…)

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-contributed by Rhonda Rinehart.

When “Psychic Killer” was released in 1975, there wasn’t much on the surface to set it apart from other horror movies of the same ilk.  There was violence.  There was gore.  There was sex.  There were victims.  “He freed his mind and body to commit the most sensual and shocking acts imaginable!” promised the movie poster.

Such claims probably don’t mean all that much in the 40-something rearview mirror of Leatherface and Michael Myers but one thing did set “Psychic Killer” apart from other movies and that was The Kirlian Effect.  Based on a 1939 concept developed by Russian inventor Semyon Kirlian that all living things project an energy field, and these energy fields can be photographed, The Kirlian Effect received some attention; at best as a sort of pseudo-psychology and at worst as a complete myth.  The technique developed to capture these energy fields came to be known as Corona Discharge Photography, so named for the electrical discharge brought about by connecting an object to both a photographic plate and a high-voltage electrical source, and snapping a picture of the resulting electro-discharge.  And so Kirlian Photography, as it is also known, was born – and “Psychic Killer” was created in its wake.

Though the movie didn’t quite get it right – turns out the protagonist was astral projecting (a story for another blog) rather than discharging any coronal impulses – Kirlian Photography was indeed the muse for the film’s screenwriter and producer, Mardi Rustam, and, surprisingly, for a handful of psychologists in the ‘70s and ‘80s.

One of those psychologists, Willard Caldwell, was hanging out in a cute little cottage named Kipling Arms, tinkering with his own coronal discharge equipment around the same time that Rustam was conceiving his psychic killer.  While photographing electromagnetic discharges or “auras” of everything from lizards and grasshoppers to vials of his own blood, Caldwell wasn’t just playing a 1970s version of Dr. Frankenstein.

Vial of Willard Caldwell blood.

Willard Caldwell’s left and right frontal lobes.

Willard Caldwell’s hands.

Rather, Caldwell was developing techniques that would come to focus on the effects of magnetic fields upon behavior, schizophrenia, and neuropsychology.  Caldwell worked to incorporate the neuroscience of brain damage and schizophrenia through the use of Kirlian photography into a more serious application, though he did take time to further develop Kirlian photographic techniques for other living things.

Coronal discharge from a grasshopper.

Caldwell’s notes on handling the grasshopper during photography

Biting grasshoppers aside, the applications of Caldwell’s techniques were reported by him in numerous research papers on topics as diverse as cancer and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  Though mostly unpublished, Caldwell’s prolific research did get some academic attention, but Kirlian photography remains an outlier in health and psychological research.

But perhaps Kirlian, Caldwell and Rustam were on to something.  The brain, as we know, is a powerful tool.  It stands to reason that we would want to know more about how it works and how it relates to our being.  How we get there is up to us.  We can make movies or we can do research.  Either way, the result is only part of the journey.

Sketch of Kirlian photographic techniques, by Caldwell.

 

The Willard Caldwell papers are located at the Cummings Center for the History of Psychology at the University of Akron.  View the collection finding aid here: http://rave.ohiolink.edu/archives/ead/OhAkAHA0036.

Photographic equipment Caldwell used in his experimentation is also located at the Cummings Center: http://cdm15960.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15960coll7/id/1713/rec/1

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contributed by Nicole Merzweiler.

The CCHP recently received an interesting new collection that I would like to share! It is the Frank B. Gilbreth Collection of Stereoscopic Photographs. If you have read, or watched the original movie version of Cheaper by the Dozen, then you may recognize the name Frank B. Gilbreth. The book, written by Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr. and his sister Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, describes life with their parents, who were known as efficiency experts. Gilbreth Sr. and Lillian were business partners who studied efficiency and output in industrial work places. Frank, an engineer, and Lillian, who had her Ph.D. in psychology, used time-and-motion studies to streamline employee movements and increase comfort and productivity.

The set of stereoscopic photographs includes a letter dated March 19, 1914, from Frank Gilbreth to Hugo Münsterberg. The letter provides detailed descriptions for the photographs. Letter_001

Gilbreth wanted to show Münsterberg, a pioneer of applied psychology who also had interest in industrial/organizational work, the projects that he had been working on and sent photographs which were mainly from his time at The New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island.

You’ll notice something unique about these photographs – there are two side-by-side images. Stereoscopic photographs are used to create depth in the picture. If you look at these through a stereoscopic viewer they will become three-dimensional. The collection consists of 54 stereoscopic photographs, including 13 on 8 x 9.25 inch cards, 24 on 3.5 x 7 inch cards, and 17 photographs without card backing in a variety of sizes. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are available to view online.

Some of my favorite from the collection include:

According to the letter, “1026 shows the experiment room where my micro-motion study first took place. The floor is cross-sectioned, and the two clocks can be seen half way up on the right hand side of the picture.”

According to the letter, “1026 shows the experiment room where my micro-motion study first took place. The floor is cross-sectioned, and the two clocks can be seen half way up on the right hand side of the picture.”

 

According to the letter, “618-G70-2. This picture shows ten cycles of folding ten handkerchiefs, taken from the right side in put in a box in front”

According to the letter, “618-G70-2. This picture shows ten cycles of folding ten handkerchiefs, taken from the right side in put in a box in front”.

 

According to the letter, “#618-G71-C shows an operator making more than 150 motions in folding one of these pieces of cloth. The operator should do this work in 16 motions.”

According to the letter, “#618-G71-C shows an operator making more than 150 motions in folding one of these pieces of cloth. The operator should do this work in 16 motions.”

 

According to the letter, “S10-B. This is a cyclegraph of a surgeon tieing [sic] a knot in a suture around an artery. This is also a dummy operation.”

According to the letter, “S10-B. This is a cyclegraph of a surgeon tieing [sic] a knot in a suture around an artery. This is also a dummy operation.”

Many thanks to Milt and Lee Hakel for these fabulous materials!

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– Contributed by Jodi Kearns

Fall 2015 will mark the 50th anniversary of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. The April 2015 book-of-the-month selection pays tribute to this rich history  that CCHP staff and students have dedicated the past 50 years to preserving. In 2015, the mission of the Cummings Center is to support access to the complete historical record of psychology and related human sciences in order to foster understanding of the human condition.  The Illustrated History of American Psychology, 2nd edition, published 17 years ago, was an early project in providing access to the historical record of American psychology.

Populated largely by photographs and digitized materials from CCHP collections and written by the co-founders of the Archives, Drs. John A. Popplestone and Marion White McPherson, the Illustrated History describes in words and illustrations with more than 350 pictures the (at the time) just over 100-year story of American psychology . The book visits experimental psychology laboratories, writings and works of prominent figures, military testing for intelligence and vocation, and more.

The photographs and objects from the Archives in the Illustrated History are still in the CCHP collections today.

exhibit in Museum of Psychology showcasing artifacts from CCHP collections

exhibit in Museum of Psychology showcasing artifacts from CCHP collections

The phrenology bust on page 37, for example, is on exhibit in the Museum of Psychology. (Can you find it in the above gallery photograph?)

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 37

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 37

So, too, is the pseudophone now on display in the Museum depicted in this 1928 image on page 86. (Do you see it in the gallery photo?)

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 86

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 86

Additionally, images in the Illustrated History of manuscript papers and testing materials remain in the CCHP collections and available to researchers.

An Illustrated History of American Psychology,  page 127

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 127

An Illustrated History of American Psychology,  pages 148-149

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, pages 148-149

Dorothy Gruich, CCHP Coordinator, helped Drs. Popplestone and McPherson put the first edition together while she was an undergraduate student assistant at the Archives.

Please visit the University of Akron Press for information about other CCHP publications.

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~ contributed by Jodi Kearns

Psychologist Dr. Robert S. Waldrop was a chaplain aboard the USS Benevolence, a hospital ship stationed in Japanese waters during summer and fall of 1945 after the atomic bombs were dropped.

written on back of photograph: "AH-13 Benevolence docked Yokahama August 1945"

written on back of photograph: “AH-13 Benevolence docked Yokahama August 1945″ [M1623 Folder 13]

 

on the deck of USS Benevolence

on the deck of USS Benevolence [M1623 Folder 3]

In a blog post from 2012, you can read more about Dr. Waldrop’s contributions and you can listen to a 2012 recording of conversation between Dr. Waldrop and CHP Director Dr. David Baker discussing these photographs and Dr. Waldrop’s work on the USS Benevolence.

Dr. Waldrop captured photographs with own camera during his 1945 deployment to Japan. Low-resolution images of the whole collection are available for review in the CHP online repository: http://collections.uakron.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15960coll2/id/4944. In this post, we give a close-up excerpt of this collection.

 

On September 2, 1945, the Japanese surrendered. Dr. Waldrop captured the spontaneous prayer vigil held at the announcement of the end of the war.

written on back of photograph: "Docked in Yokosuka @ Announcement of end of War. I held prayers of thanks for our crew AH-13 and other ships docked 8-6-45"

written on back of photograph: “Docked in Yokosuka @ Announcement of end of War. I held prayers of thanks for our crew AH-13 and other ships docked 8-6-45” [M1623 Folder 1]

Released prisoners and other patients of Allied forces were transported to the USS Benevolence for treatment.

wounded coming aboard

wounded coming aboard [M1623 Folder 6]

Dr. Waldrop played his instrument in the USS Benevolence 14-piece band.

written on back of photograph: "USS Benevolence Band (14 piece); RSW organized, got instruments donated while in Brooklyn Shipyard. We played in/out of every port and many special occasions underway."

written on back of photograph: “USS Benevolence Band (14 piece); RSW organized, got instruments donated while in Brooklyn Shipyard. We played in/out of every port and many special occasions underway.” [M1623 Folder 11]

The USO visited the deck of the hospital ship. (I think the performer in the hat might be Eddie Bracken. What do you think?)

USO entertainers; Tokyo Bay; 1945

USO entertainers; Tokyo Bay; 1945 [M1623 Folder 3]

Dr. Waldrop and his shipmates also spent time in the skies

written on back of photograph: "scenes of Nagasaki. RSW took these from a bay door of a navy seaplane"

written on back of photograph: “scenes of Nagasaki. RSW took these from a bay door of a navy seaplane” [M1623 Folder 6]

and on the land

Robert S. Waldrop in Yokohama

Robert S. Waldrop in Yokohama [M1623 Folder 16]

written on back of photograph: "shot from Theater Street in Yokahama showing a canal running down the center of town. A clean job of bombinb on one side of the canal"

written on back of photograph: “shot from Theater Street in Yokahama showing a canal running down the center of town. A clean job of bombing on one side of the canal” [M1623 Folder 14]

surveying the damage caused by the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.

[M1623 Folder 17]

written on back of photograph: "some of my shipmates viewing the results of the "A" bomb, Nagasaki 1945"

written on back of photograph: “some of my shipmates viewing the results of the “A” bomb, Nagasaki 1945″ [M1623 Folder 17]

 

This rich collection of photographs can be viewed in its entirety in our online repository and onsite with a scheduled visit. Also check out the finding aid for more information about the Robert S. Waldrop papers. Contact ahap@uakron.edu to schedule a research appointment.

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Stephanie_ M Harrower - Headshot-B wm

Molly Harrower, 1906 – 1999

 

-Contributed by Stephanie Cameron.

Stephanie Cameron has volunteered and worked at the Center for the History of Psychology for several years and is currently processing photographs from the Molly Harrower papers.

Molly Harrower (1906-1999) received her Ph.D. in 1934, working with E.G. Boring, Arnold Gesell, and Kurt Koffka. Over the course of her career, she focused on  electrical brain stimulation, the Rorschach test, psychodiagnostics, consulting, and psychotherapy. She also served as a Military Consultant for the United States Air Force and Army.

Medical Field Service School

Medical Field Service School

As one of the first women to practice psychology in a male dominated profession, Harrower experienced the effects of prejudice and inequality by men and women. Refusing to waver in her aspirations, she accomplished many of her goals and became the first woman to dine in the Montefiore Hospital doctor’s dining room.

Stephanie_ M Harrower - Panel-B wm

At the age of 61, Harrower joined the University of Florida as a faculty member and taught Clinical Psychology.

Stephanie_MHarrower - Tubing - B wm

Harrower, tubing with her students.

 

While Harrower dedicated her life to the field of psychology, research, practice, and writing, she had several hobbies. She was passionate about animals and their care, writing poetry, swimming, and golfing. For her 80th birthday, she took an opportunity to swim with manatees.

Stephanie_ M Harrower - 80th b-day-B wm

Stephanie_M Harrower - Cubs -B wm

Based on the interpretation of the rich Molly Harrower collection housed at the Center for the History of Psychology, Harrower would have encouraged us to work past our barriers, think outside of the box, and to LIVE!

As she said in 1946, “Life, you will lose a lover when I die!” (cited in Harrower, 1946, Time to squander, time to reap. New Bedford, MA: Reynolds)

Stephanie_ M Harrower-Life-B wm

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DSC_4069

Emily Winters, an MLIS student at Kent State University, has been diligently working on creating the CHP’s first online exhibit. As a practicum student here at the CHP, she quickly became an expert on the exhibit’s focus–the IQ Zoo. Emily has now completed her practicum (and is nearing completion of her degree!) and we are happy to say that the exhibit will be launched this May.

-Contributed by Emily Winters.

For the past four months I have spent 150 hours creating “The IQ Zoo” an online exhibit for the Center of the History of Psychology (CHP).  During that time, I’ve learned more than I ever imagined about a company called Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) and the folks who worked there.  I’ve even used their techniques to train my cat Rocky to “sit up!”

Rocky_1Rocky_2

The exhibit that I have compiled goes through a brief history of the ABE, but its focus is really on the IQ Zoo.  The Brelands (and later the Baileys) trained thousands of animals between 1947 and 1990.  These included everything from cockroaches to whales.

goatboxwm_med

The IQ Zoo was a way for them to show the public the outcomes of their training methods, while bringing in an income.

IQZEXTERIOR&BUS101097watermark

Each of the exhibits in the IQ Zoo could be shipped anywhere in the world.  There were IQ Zoo exhibits at the New York World’s Fair, in Japan, and in Mexico to name a few.  The animals were always treated with care and respect.  The Brelands insisted that if there was a problem, they must be contacted prior to anything being done to their animals.

While you may not have heard of the Brelands or the Baileys, or ABE for that matter, you are probably somewhat familiar with the technique of training dogs with clicker devices. 

DOGLAYCLICKER1101097 copy

This was a training method that came directly from the Brelands and their company.  Keller Breland even wrote a dog training manual all about clicker training in 1963.

There are amazing papers, pictures, and artifacts that delve into great detail about ABE.  I feel like I have come to know some of the characters through my weeks of research and it is not without a twinge of sadness that I leave the CHP and the many unread stories of ABE.  However, this is where you can step in for me!  Go to the archives if you have a chance and browse the records online.  Read Marian’s very detailed memoir, written in a very thoughtful, detailed way that makes you feel like you are sitting with her listening to her stories.  Look at the inventions (and patents) of Grant Evans, Keller Breland and Bob Bailey.  Check out the large “Skinner boxes” that were the IQ Zoo exhibits.  I know you will find something amazing, just as I have.

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