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Archive for the ‘Still Images’ Category

contributed by Nicole Merzweiler.

The CCHP recently received an interesting new collection that I would like to share! It is the Frank B. Gilbreth Collection of Stereoscopic Photographs. If you have read, or watched the original movie version of Cheaper by the Dozen, then you may recognize the name Frank B. Gilbreth. The book, written by Frank B. Gilbreth, Jr. and his sister Ernestine Gilbreth Carey, describes life with their parents, who were known as efficiency experts. Gilbreth Sr. and Lillian were business partners who studied efficiency and output in industrial work places. Frank, an engineer, and Lillian, who had her Ph.D. in psychology, used time-and-motion studies to streamline employee movements and increase comfort and productivity.

The set of stereoscopic photographs includes a letter dated March 19, 1914, from Frank Gilbreth to Hugo Münsterberg. The letter provides detailed descriptions for the photographs. Letter_001

Gilbreth wanted to show Münsterberg, a pioneer of applied psychology who also had interest in industrial/organizational work, the projects that he had been working on and sent photographs which were mainly from his time at The New England Butt Company in Providence, Rhode Island.

You’ll notice something unique about these photographs – there are two side-by-side images. Stereoscopic photographs are used to create depth in the picture. If you look at these through a stereoscopic viewer they will become three-dimensional. The collection consists of 54 stereoscopic photographs, including 13 on 8 x 9.25 inch cards, 24 on 3.5 x 7 inch cards, and 17 photographs without card backing in a variety of sizes. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are available to view online.

Some of my favorite from the collection include:

According to the letter, “1026 shows the experiment room where my micro-motion study first took place. The floor is cross-sectioned, and the two clocks can be seen half way up on the right hand side of the picture.”

According to the letter, “1026 shows the experiment room where my micro-motion study first took place. The floor is cross-sectioned, and the two clocks can be seen half way up on the right hand side of the picture.”

 

According to the letter, “618-G70-2. This picture shows ten cycles of folding ten handkerchiefs, taken from the right side in put in a box in front”

According to the letter, “618-G70-2. This picture shows ten cycles of folding ten handkerchiefs, taken from the right side in put in a box in front”.

 

According to the letter, “#618-G71-C shows an operator making more than 150 motions in folding one of these pieces of cloth. The operator should do this work in 16 motions.”

According to the letter, “#618-G71-C shows an operator making more than 150 motions in folding one of these pieces of cloth. The operator should do this work in 16 motions.”

 

According to the letter, “S10-B. This is a cyclegraph of a surgeon tieing [sic] a knot in a suture around an artery. This is also a dummy operation.”

According to the letter, “S10-B. This is a cyclegraph of a surgeon tieing [sic] a knot in a suture around an artery. This is also a dummy operation.”

Many thanks to Milt and Lee Hakel for these fabulous materials!

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– Contributed by Jodi Kearns

Fall 2015 will mark the 50th anniversary of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. The April 2015 book-of-the-month selection pays tribute to this rich history  that CCHP staff and students have dedicated the past 50 years to preserving. In 2015, the mission of the Cummings Center is to support access to the complete historical record of psychology and related human sciences in order to foster understanding of the human condition.  The Illustrated History of American Psychology, 2nd edition, published 17 years ago, was an early project in providing access to the historical record of American psychology.

Populated largely by photographs and digitized materials from CCHP collections and written by the co-founders of the Archives, Drs. John A. Popplestone and Marion White McPherson, the Illustrated History describes in words and illustrations with more than 350 pictures the (at the time) just over 100-year story of American psychology . The book visits experimental psychology laboratories, writings and works of prominent figures, military testing for intelligence and vocation, and more.

The photographs and objects from the Archives in the Illustrated History are still in the CCHP collections today.

exhibit in Museum of Psychology showcasing artifacts from CCHP collections

exhibit in Museum of Psychology showcasing artifacts from CCHP collections

The phrenology bust on page 37, for example, is on exhibit in the Museum of Psychology. (Can you find it in the above gallery photograph?)

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 37

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 37

So, too, is the pseudophone now on display in the Museum depicted in this 1928 image on page 86. (Do you see it in the gallery photo?)

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 86

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 86

Additionally, images in the Illustrated History of manuscript papers and testing materials remain in the CCHP collections and available to researchers.

An Illustrated History of American Psychology,  page 127

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, page 127

An Illustrated History of American Psychology,  pages 148-149

An Illustrated History of American Psychology, pages 148-149

Dorothy Gruich, CCHP Coordinator, helped Drs. Popplestone and McPherson put the first edition together while she was an undergraduate student assistant at the Archives.

Please visit the University of Akron Press for information about other CCHP publications.

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~ contributed by Jodi Kearns

Psychologist Dr. Robert S. Waldrop was a chaplain aboard the USS Benevolence, a hospital ship stationed in Japanese waters during summer and fall of 1945 after the atomic bombs were dropped.

written on back of photograph: "AH-13 Benevolence docked Yokahama August 1945"

written on back of photograph: “AH-13 Benevolence docked Yokahama August 1945″ [M1623 Folder 13]

 

on the deck of USS Benevolence

on the deck of USS Benevolence [M1623 Folder 3]

In a blog post from 2012, you can read more about Dr. Waldrop’s contributions and you can listen to a 2012 recording of conversation between Dr. Waldrop and CHP Director Dr. David Baker discussing these photographs and Dr. Waldrop’s work on the USS Benevolence.

Dr. Waldrop captured photographs with own camera during his 1945 deployment to Japan. Low-resolution images of the whole collection are available for review in the CHP online repository: http://collections.uakron.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15960coll2/id/4944. In this post, we give a close-up excerpt of this collection.

 

On September 2, 1945, the Japanese surrendered. Dr. Waldrop captured the spontaneous prayer vigil held at the announcement of the end of the war.

written on back of photograph: "Docked in Yokosuka @ Announcement of end of War. I held prayers of thanks for our crew AH-13 and other ships docked 8-6-45"

written on back of photograph: “Docked in Yokosuka @ Announcement of end of War. I held prayers of thanks for our crew AH-13 and other ships docked 8-6-45” [M1623 Folder 1]

Released prisoners and other patients of Allied forces were transported to the USS Benevolence for treatment.

wounded coming aboard

wounded coming aboard [M1623 Folder 6]

Dr. Waldrop played his instrument in the USS Benevolence 14-piece band.

written on back of photograph: "USS Benevolence Band (14 piece); RSW organized, got instruments donated while in Brooklyn Shipyard. We played in/out of every port and many special occasions underway."

written on back of photograph: “USS Benevolence Band (14 piece); RSW organized, got instruments donated while in Brooklyn Shipyard. We played in/out of every port and many special occasions underway.” [M1623 Folder 11]

The USO visited the deck of the hospital ship. (I think the performer in the hat might be Eddie Bracken. What do you think?)

USO entertainers; Tokyo Bay; 1945

USO entertainers; Tokyo Bay; 1945 [M1623 Folder 3]

Dr. Waldrop and his shipmates also spent time in the skies

written on back of photograph: "scenes of Nagasaki. RSW took these from a bay door of a navy seaplane"

written on back of photograph: “scenes of Nagasaki. RSW took these from a bay door of a navy seaplane” [M1623 Folder 6]

and on the land

Robert S. Waldrop in Yokohama

Robert S. Waldrop in Yokohama [M1623 Folder 16]

written on back of photograph: "shot from Theater Street in Yokahama showing a canal running down the center of town. A clean job of bombinb on one side of the canal"

written on back of photograph: “shot from Theater Street in Yokahama showing a canal running down the center of town. A clean job of bombing on one side of the canal” [M1623 Folder 14]

surveying the damage caused by the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.

[M1623 Folder 17]

written on back of photograph: "some of my shipmates viewing the results of the "A" bomb, Nagasaki 1945"

written on back of photograph: “some of my shipmates viewing the results of the “A” bomb, Nagasaki 1945″ [M1623 Folder 17]

 

This rich collection of photographs can be viewed in its entirety in our online repository and onsite with a scheduled visit. Also check out the finding aid for more information about the Robert S. Waldrop papers. Contact ahap@uakron.edu to schedule a research appointment.

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Stephanie_ M Harrower - Headshot-B wm

Molly Harrower, 1906 – 1999

 

-Contributed by Stephanie Cameron.

Stephanie Cameron has volunteered and worked at the Center for the History of Psychology for several years and is currently processing photographs from the Molly Harrower papers.

Molly Harrower (1906-1999) received her Ph.D. in 1934, working with E.G. Boring, Arnold Gesell, and Kurt Koffka. Over the course of her career, she focused on  electrical brain stimulation, the Rorschach test, psychodiagnostics, consulting, and psychotherapy. She also served as a Military Consultant for the United States Air Force and Army.

Medical Field Service School

Medical Field Service School

As one of the first women to practice psychology in a male dominated profession, Harrower experienced the effects of prejudice and inequality by men and women. Refusing to waver in her aspirations, she accomplished many of her goals and became the first woman to dine in the Montefiore Hospital doctor’s dining room.

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At the age of 61, Harrower joined the University of Florida as a faculty member and taught Clinical Psychology.

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Harrower, tubing with her students.

 

While Harrower dedicated her life to the field of psychology, research, practice, and writing, she had several hobbies. She was passionate about animals and their care, writing poetry, swimming, and golfing. For her 80th birthday, she took an opportunity to swim with manatees.

Stephanie_ M Harrower - 80th b-day-B wm

Stephanie_M Harrower - Cubs -B wm

Based on the interpretation of the rich Molly Harrower collection housed at the Center for the History of Psychology, Harrower would have encouraged us to work past our barriers, think outside of the box, and to LIVE!

As she said in 1946, “Life, you will lose a lover when I die!” (cited in Harrower, 1946, Time to squander, time to reap. New Bedford, MA: Reynolds)

Stephanie_ M Harrower-Life-B wm

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Emily Winters, an MLIS student at Kent State University, has been diligently working on creating the CHP’s first online exhibit. As a practicum student here at the CHP, she quickly became an expert on the exhibit’s focus–the IQ Zoo. Emily has now completed her practicum (and is nearing completion of her degree!) and we are happy to say that the exhibit will be launched this May.

-Contributed by Emily Winters.

For the past four months I have spent 150 hours creating “The IQ Zoo” an online exhibit for the Center of the History of Psychology (CHP).  During that time, I’ve learned more than I ever imagined about a company called Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE) and the folks who worked there.  I’ve even used their techniques to train my cat Rocky to “sit up!”

Rocky_1Rocky_2

The exhibit that I have compiled goes through a brief history of the ABE, but its focus is really on the IQ Zoo.  The Brelands (and later the Baileys) trained thousands of animals between 1947 and 1990.  These included everything from cockroaches to whales.

goatboxwm_med

The IQ Zoo was a way for them to show the public the outcomes of their training methods, while bringing in an income.

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Each of the exhibits in the IQ Zoo could be shipped anywhere in the world.  There were IQ Zoo exhibits at the New York World’s Fair, in Japan, and in Mexico to name a few.  The animals were always treated with care and respect.  The Brelands insisted that if there was a problem, they must be contacted prior to anything being done to their animals.

While you may not have heard of the Brelands or the Baileys, or ABE for that matter, you are probably somewhat familiar with the technique of training dogs with clicker devices. 

DOGLAYCLICKER1101097 copy

This was a training method that came directly from the Brelands and their company.  Keller Breland even wrote a dog training manual all about clicker training in 1963.

There are amazing papers, pictures, and artifacts that delve into great detail about ABE.  I feel like I have come to know some of the characters through my weeks of research and it is not without a twinge of sadness that I leave the CHP and the many unread stories of ABE.  However, this is where you can step in for me!  Go to the archives if you have a chance and browse the records online.  Read Marian’s very detailed memoir, written in a very thoughtful, detailed way that makes you feel like you are sitting with her listening to her stories.  Look at the inventions (and patents) of Grant Evans, Keller Breland and Bob Bailey.  Check out the large “Skinner boxes” that were the IQ Zoo exhibits.  I know you will find something amazing, just as I have.

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-Contributed by Allison Howell.

During her time as a practicum student at the CHP, Allison has been working on several projects, including preservation and digitization of a century-old scrapbook created by psychologist Edgar Doll at the Vineland Training School. You can read about the process here and here. She has now completed the project. Here, she describes the long-term care, storage, and use of the Doll scrapbook.

Now that the preservation process has been completed, you may have several questions concerning Edgar Doll’s scrapbook or preserved materials in general. Hopefully, your questions include the following:

  • Where will the physical scrapbook go now?
  • How will staff members find the scrapbook when they need it?
  • Now that it is digitized, will the scrapbook ever see the light of day again?
  • And–perhaps most importantly–how will researchers know the scrapbook is housed at CHP?

Where will the physical scrapbook go now?

Now that is has been digitized, the scrapbook will be placed in long-term storage. Archives, repositories, museums, and other such institutions generally have an area where they keep the portions of their collections that are not currently on display, and CHP is no exception.

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The box containing Doll’s scrapbook is labeled with its collection name (“Geraldine and Edgar A. Doll Papers”), its location (“Oversized”), and its unique identifier (“OS145”). With all of this information present, staff members can easily locate the box and return it to its home-location after a researcher has finished with it.

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How will staff members find the scrapbook when they need it?

Under the previous question, I noted that staff members can easily located desired boxes based on their informative labels. The bigger question is, then, how do staff members know what label they are looking for?

CHP has purchased CONTENTdm, a content management system that facilitates storage and management of a library’s digital collections. CONTENTdm allows CHP to enter information about its collections into a searchable database, which includes an item’s title, its description, its permanent location, its condition, and its format.

CONTENTdm

CONTENTdm helps CHP staff keep the collections organized, well-described, and findable. When the scrapbook metadata is made public, this will also help alert researchers that it is here at the Center for viewing. Eventually, much of the digitized scrapbook will go online for public viewing (with some restrictions due to privacy concerns).

Now that it is digitized, will the scrapbook ever see the light of day again?

As a general rule, boxes in a repository’s storage area are not opened unless a researcher has requested the material inside. However, there are exceptions to this, particularly if an item will be included in an exhibit in the CHP museum.

DSC_3901

Interested in taking a look this amazing piece of history yourself? Its pages are always happy to have visitors! (Any research requests can be sent to ahap@uakron.edu.)

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-Contributed by Allison Howell.

In this CHP blog posting, practicum student Allison Howell provides a lesson in archival encapsulation and gives an inside look at preserving a century-old scrapbook. 

What’s the difference between preservation and conservation?

According to Standing Conference on Archives and Museums, or SCAM (which, ironically, is fact-based), preservation is an “action taken to prevent damage [from] occurring”. Conservation, on the other hand, “aims to prevent [the] continuation of damage that has already occurred by halting the process with minimal intervention” (http://www.archivesandmuseums.org.uk/scam/infosheet3.htm) In the case of Edgar A. Doll’s scrapbook, I performed preservation (i.e. stabilizing the scrapbook by encapsulating it), not conservation (i.e. repairing tears, rebinding the volume, etc.).

The first step in the preservation process is digitization. Although digitization does not do anything to prevent damage to the physical scrapbook, it provides CHP and its researchers with a record of how the scrapbook looksTODAY. This is especially helpful if a researcher requests the volume fifty years from now and finds that some of the photos have faded or have become damaged. If damage has occurred, the researcher will be able to access the digital records and see how the photos looked when they were digitized.

When digitizing the Doll scrapbook, I used two computers and two scanners to digitize each page as both a JPG and a TIFF. By splitting the digitization process, I was able to digitize the entire scrapbook fairly quickly. In order to keep the pages in their original sequence as I scanned, I wrote the page numbers down on post-it notes positioned in front of the scanners (see below).

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During the digitization process, I kept the scrapbook pages in three separate piles. The pile on the far left contained the pages that had been fully digitized, the pile in the middle contained the pages that were still waiting to be digitized, and, finally, the page on the right was in the process of having all of the names present on either of its sides entered into an Excel spreadsheet for later reference.

Once the entire scrapbook was digitized, I used mylar to encapsulate each page. Encapsulation protects archival materials and is entirely reversible, unlike lamination. (Lamination is harmful for numerous reasons, but the biggest issues are that it 1) sticks to the archival material and does not allow for separation and 2) subjects the archival material to high heat during the lamination process. For those unfamiliar with archival processes, stickiness and heat are two things that should be avoided at all cost!)

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Mylar comes on an enormous roll, which allows it to be cut to any size. It is perfectly clear, allowing for the archival material inside to be easily seen.

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At CHP, mylar is cut to twice the width of the material. This way, only the top and bottom edges need closed. The right edge is a folded edge (see above) and the left remains open for air circulation and access. The folded edge needs pressed with a bone tool, which provides a crisp crease.

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Once the mylar has been folded, the archival material (or scrapbook page, in this case) should be tucked into the fold as much as possible. This helps to prevent the page from sliding around inside its mylar housing.

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After the archival material is secure in the fold, double-sided, archival-quality tape is used on both the upper and lower edge. As a general rule, the edge that remains un-taped (or open) should be one of the short edges. This allows for more stability of the archival material’s longer sides.

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Once the tape is in place and the backing has been removed, both sides of the encapsulation packet should be pressed together to secure the seal.

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In order to make the packet presentable and easier to store, the rough edges of the packet should be trimmed. Taped edges should be cut at least ½ inch from the outside of the tape edge. The open edge should be trimmed at least 1 inch from the archival material, and, of course, the folded edge should remain untouched.

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At this point, the packet is complete and is stable enough to be handled.

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Encapsulation projects involving numerous pages or sheets should be numbered to maintain their original order. Page numbers should always be marked on the outside of the mylar, never on the inside or the archival material itself.

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In the case of the Doll scrapbook, 38 pages of photographs were encapsulated as well as the front and back covers, two loose images, and all of the blank scrapbook pages. Shown above are the first four pages in their encapsulation packets.

Now that the scrapbook has been discovered, digitized, and encapsulated, what happens next? Stay tuned!

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