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Posts Tagged ‘psychologists’

-Contributed by Rhonda Rinehart.

If there’s one person who had many, many opportunities to be stressed out – and pretty much all the time – it was Charles D. Spielberger.  By the standards of some of his own assessments developed to measure stress, he was in the thick of it.  His professional life was demanding.  He traveled the world.  He was a leader on numerous projects and research endeavors – often simultaneously.  He held high office within his profession.  People constantly hounded him for professional references and research assistance.  He was evaluated by his peers, and also by supervisors and officials.  He planned international conferences.  He edited professional journals.  He made – and retained – professional relationships with VIPs in the biz.

Sample questions from the Job Stress Survey (JSS) developed by Spielberger and P. R. Vagg, 1999
Charles D. Spielberger papers, Boxes M6050-M6062, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

These are only a few random samples out of 30 questions.  After spending the better part of the last three years sorting and organizing the vast collection of materials that comprise the life of Charles D. Spielberger, I can say with a fair amount of certainty that he experienced any number of the above situations on a regular basis.

And just how well did he respond to these potential stressors?  I suppose we can never know exactly how Spielberger felt inside at any given moment, but after getting to know him a bit through organizing his life in professional papers, I have two separate impressions of how Spielberger possibly handled his own stress.  1.)  It would be quite difficult to accomplish all that he accomplished through a career spanning six decades if he did not handle stress well.  2.)  On the other hand, his long incursion into stress was insightful and somewhat sympathetic to the ever-present afflictions of anxiety, nervousness, tension and worry attributed to stress that affect so many lives.  It seems difficult to spend so much time on a topic of research and develop such acclaimed assessments about stress if he didn’t perhaps feel the nagging results of it from time to time.

We all process and react to stress differently depending on a number of factors.  And this can make a big difference when it comes to how we live our lives.  For Spielberger, stress was apparently not debilitating, though he knew full well it could be for some.  I would contend that Spielberger may have even enjoyed some of the byproducts of stress – endorphin rush, pushing himself to do better and do more.

Promotional button for STRESSCARE Systems, Inc., Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M6034, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

As a member of the National Scientific Advisory Council for STRESSCARE Systems during 1985-1988, Spielberger lent his growing expertise on stress to this, and many other, workshops that gave people tools to understanding their own personal stressors and how to live with them, if not completely eliminate them.

An early assessment test developed by Spielberger, the foundation for which many other assessment tools were built upon, lists and aggregates feelings associated with stress and anxiety.  Many adaptations of the STAI (below) were developed for children, personalities, countries, vocations, and other situations.  Some of Spielberger’s most interesting and currently relevant work was done in the area of police stress and subsequent selection of police officers.

Sample questions from early edition of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) developed by Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch and R. Lushene, 1968; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Boxes M6094-M6102, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

Lest you think stress was all Spielberger was about, think again.  His infinite curiosity and tireless industriousness made him open to all sorts of life experiences, including retiring from the U.S. Naval Reserve with the rank of Commander – and meeting with Carl Sagan.

Charles Spielberger (3rd row, 3rd from right), Commissioned Officers Training Course, Ninth Session, 1955; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M5875, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

 

Spielberger, as the University of South Florida Distinguished Research Professor, congratulating Carl Sagan, first recipient of the Carl Sagan Award for Public Appreciation of Science, 1993; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M5870, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

Spielberger served as the 1991-1992 APA president.  This professional watermark is a culmination of a professional life steeped in research, contributions to the field, making connections and forging friendships.  All rewarding, but certainly stressful as well.

 

Endorsement letter for Charles Spielberger as APA President, Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M6215, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

 

Congratulatory letter to Charles Spielberger from director of The Israeli Institute for Military Studies, 1989; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M5619, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

Others continue to build upon Spielberger’s legacy by using his research and adapting his tests globally to further our understanding of stress and its effects on our lives.  Something that Charles Spielberger noticed as a human commonality.

See what more you can discover about Charles Spielberger – and possibly yourself – by delving into the Charles D. Spielberger papers, now open for research at the Cummings Center.

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contributed by Lizette R. Barton.

Like countless others I considered Dr. Joseph White a mentor and a friend and I was heartbroken to learn of his sudden passing in November. Joe White changed my life. He truly, honestly changed the course of my life and I will be forever grateful to him. I know that many of us have Joe White stories – stories of friendship, mentorship, inspiration, and education. I’d like to take this opportunity to share mine.

In 2003 I was a third year undergraduate psychology major at The University of Akron and I was enrolled in the History of Psychology course. David Baker, now my colleague but at the time just my professor for the course, invited Joe White to speak to our class.

joe white 2007

Joe White addressing Dave Baker’s History of Psychology class in 2007

He was insightful and his lecture was thought provoking. I think we can all agree that he was an incredible public speaker who could totally command an audience. At one point in his talk he mentioned the book Even the Rat was White by Robert Guthrie. I headed to the library directly after class and got that book and read it that night. I know this sounds totally cliche but as a white girl who grew up in a very rural, very white community Joe’s lecture and that book were a watershed moment. I quickly learned there is no “the history” but rather “a history” and oftentimes people are silenced and omitted from “the” history so many of us learn about in school.

Dr. Baker encouraged me to contact Dr. White and we quickly struck up a friendship. He wrote me letters of recommendation for graduate school and when I didn’t get in and was heartbroken he helped me reevaluate and realize that I had a real passion for history and archives so maybe not getting into a psychology graduate program wasn’t the worst thing on earth.

As a student assistant in the archives, and later a part-time staff member, I was assigned to process the Robert V. Guthrie manuscript papers and Joe offered to help fund my travel to Hollywood, CA in 2005 in order to see Dr. Guthrie recognized as an elder at the National Multicultural Conference and Summit. My favorite memory from the trip was sharing Manhattans and laughs seated between Dr. Guthrie and Dr. White at the hotel bar. They were impressed I could hold my alcohol “for a country girl” and I wore that as a badge of honor.

We stayed in touch for years and  would make a point to get together for drinks or dinner during his many trips to Akron for UA’s annual Black Male Summit.

By 2007 I was a full-time staff member at the Cummings Center. I decided to take advantage of the opportunity for free UA classes and enrolled in Dr. Zach Williams’ History of Hip Hop class. The topic of the “generational gap” came up again and again in course lectures and readings and when it came time to complete a final project I knew I had to talk to Joe.

The following audio clip was part of my final project for the class. I recorded my interview with Joe and then put some of his words to music. It’s “not safe for work” in that it contains explicit language but Joe’s words are powerful and I am just as inspired by them now as I was then.

Rest easy, Joe. And keep the faith.

 

 

 

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Contributed by Justin Veda, Megan Oswald, Ryan Robinson, and Anthony Pankuch.

At the crossroads of confident and creative lies Bernard Saper. A man so bold he sent his writing to the likes of Oprah Winfrey and attempted to cast such A-list actors as Robin Williams in his potential movies. He would do all of this in the pursuit of understanding the effects of humor on the human mind. There are few others like him; he is truly one of a kind in the world of psychology. The Bernard Saper papers are now available to researchers.

Bernard Saper obituary (Box M6308, Folder 4)

 

Bernard Saper was born December 16, 1920 in Brooklyn, New York. He earned his bachelor’s degree in psychology from Brooklyn College in 1946. He received his master’s degree from Columbia University and a doctoral degree in clinical psychology from the University of California in 1952. Saper became director of psychological services at the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene in 1958, and in 1965 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Functional Programming, where he advised architects on the design of facilities. In 1967, he began work as a faculty member of the Albany Medical College, and two years later became professor of psychology and director of the Institute for Psychological Applications at the University of Maine. He would go on to become professor of psychology at Florida International University. He was a founding member of the South Florida School of Professional Psychology.

Two awards for outstanding contribution and appreciation dedicating Saper’s service and development of psychology. (Box M6308, Folder 1, 7)

There are many wonders and hidden gems to be discovered in the 11 boxes that contain the Bernard Saper papers. See notes and research compiled by Bernard Saper in his research surrounding the psychology of humor in the Research Files series. Look through the Academic Files series to see the very notes he used in teaching his lectures to the next generation of psychologists in his various teaching roles. And, read through original rough drafts of his book Conditional Triumph along with never-before-seen books and teleplays waiting to be read within the Written Works series. Please note some files are restricted.

Summary of unproduced teleplay of “Surrogate” by Bernard Saper (Box M6306, Folder 1)

The processing of this archival collection fulfilled requirements for students enrolled in the course Foundations of Museums and Archives I and was generously sponsored by the EX[L] Center at The University of Akron.

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Contributed by Jillian Phipps, Pennie Fordham, and Katherine Gray.

Have you ever wondered where the idea that positive actions should be rewarded came from? Have you ever wondered where the concept of bad behavior being its own punishment came from? If so, then check out the Sidney Bijou papers, which are now available for research at the CCHP.

Sidney Bijou (1908-2009) was a psychologist who specialized in child psychology, behaviorism, and studies on autism. Many of Bijou’s studies showed that encouraging good behavior led to more good behavior, more so than when bad behavior was punished. Bijou traveled all over the world to give symposiums on his research.

Sidney Bijou towards the start of his career, undated. From box M6303, Folder 6

 

Sidney Bijou later in his career, undated. From box M6303, Folder 6

 

Name badge from the Portage Conference in Hiroshima in 1998. From box M6292, Folder 9

Some of Bijou’s major works include Behavior Analysis of Child Development (1993) and Childhood Development: The Basic Stage of Early Childhood (1976).   He contributed to other works, such as New Directions in Behavior Development and Behavior Modification: Contributions to Education, both with Emilio Ribes-Inesta.

The Sidney Bijou papers include his academic works, from when he was in college as a student to when he was teaching as a professor; his research files for his written works; manuscripts of the written works themselves; reference files that show what he was working on year to year; and biographical information on his career that he compiled himself. His papers contain 13 boxes of archival materials. These files contain most of his work in child psychology, behaviorism, and autism research.

Of special note in Bijou’s files is his work on effective teaching and treatment methods for autistic children (1990-1998). In these files, Bijou has different curricula, class designs, and possible ways to assist autistic children in integrating into the public school system.

Example of the worksheets Bijou used to assess how well schools were integrating autistic children. From box M6293, Folder 7.

 

The processing of this archival collection fulfilled requirements for students enrolled in the course Foundations of Museums and Archives I and was generously sponsored by the EX[L] Center at the University of Akron.

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-contributed by Emily Gainer.

Sometimes, a book is more than a book.  It’s a storage container for an archival gem that surprises and delights everyone at the CCHP.  While working on a shelving project for the CCHP book collection, I opened a copy of Psychology: From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist by John B. Watson, 1919.  On the inside cover, Watson signed and inscribed the book to Mr. Arthur Hays.  While this is an interesting discovery, the best was yet to come.

The book, “Psychology: From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist” by John B. Watson, includes a signed inscription.

This copy, donated by Edward Girden, also includes a handwritten letter from Watson to Hays.  The letter is dated October 20, 1920.  As we know, this is an important time in Watson’s life and career.  Read, in Watson’s own handwriting, some details from that time period!

A handwritten letter from John B. Watson to Mr. Hays is adhered to the inside of “Psychology: From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist” by Watson. See the next photograph for a closer scan of this letter.

 

The letter from John B. Watson to Mr. Hays is adhered to the inside of the book, “Psychology: From the Standpoint of a Behaviorist”. The book and letter are housed at the CCHP.

Transcript of letter:

Dear Mr. Hays,

Many thanks for the letter – for a wonder my non-legal mind took it in.  No further word – no letters.  Have not been served with papers. Have been unable to get into touch with my wife.  Probably out of town.

Rosalie left for Baltimore for a visit.

I understand that I am to be honored with an invitation to accept a professorship of psychology in the new school along with John Dewey – Arthur Robinson and Veblen. I meet with the representatives Friday evening. This would immediately “rehabilitate” me. I hope it is true for Rosalie’s sake.

With kindest regards to Mrs. Hays. Sincerely yours

John B. Watson

Oct 20/1920

 

Finding an important document inside the pages of a book serves as a good reminder to be alert while working in the archives.  You never know where the next gem will be found!

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Contributed by Lizette R. Barton.

Yesterday was Parents’ Day and since psychology and parenting go hand in hand, I was charged with writing a blog for the occasion.

As I mother, I thought I could kill a couple of birds with one stone and gather helpful information about motherhood from the archives, use that information in my own life, and then blog about it. But then I realized I’m winging this whole parenting thing, so even if I found “helpful” information, I wouldn’t use it anyways.

Next I considered digging into the collections to see what I could unearth about “refrigerator mothers,” but then I realized I am sick and damn tired of mom guilt.

Then I thought, maybe parenting alongside the history of child development might be cool, but I remembered that I am currently embroiled in the almost-terrible-twos and the absolutely-infuriating-threes and I am learning plenty about independence milestones at home.

Then it came to me. Beyond the theories and the research and the publications, psychologists have parents. And some were even parents themselves.

So instead of an intellectual blog, I give you this fluff piece: psychologists are parents too.

Did you know that Knight Dunlap had a mother? It’s true!

Sure, he was at Johns Hopkins alongside John B. Watson and he helped established the Journal of Comparative Psychology and and he went on to chair the psychology department at UCLA, but he had a mother! Not only that, but she wrote letters to him and in 1906 offered to butcher one of her best chickens for him. If that doesn’t scream good parenting, I don’t know what does.

Dunlap_Collage_watermark

“Did you remember that your birthday was this week and Thanksgiving comes next week? I should be glad to kill one of my best chickens for yours. Turkey is 20⊄ per pound and very scarce at that.” Knight Dunlap papers, box M570, folder “Personal”

 

Lillie Lewin Bowman had a mother. And before she patented the pour spout, she was just a gal graduating from Berkeley with a mother who believed in her.

BowmanPapers_M92-2_folder_Watermark

Lillie Lewin Bowman papers, box M92.2, folder “Professional”

 

Lois B. Murphy had a mother. And a father. And when she was born in 1902, they started this adorable baby book for her.

MurphyPapers_M1258_certificates_Watermarked

Gardner and Lois B. Murphy papers, box M1258, folder “Certificates”

 

Later, Lois Barclay married fellow psychologist Gardner Murphy and guess what? They became parents! Here’s an image of Gardner with one of their children in 1953.

MurphyPapers_V40_folder2_Gardner_Watermarked

Gardner and Lois B. Murphy papers, box V40, folder 2

 

Other psychologists were also parents.

Check out this 1936 (or maybe 1937) newspaper announcement of Rosemary Young’s third birthday party. Her father was psychologist Paul T. Young. Sure, he was one of Titchener’s doctoral students and he spent a year on the streets of Berlin with his pseudophone, but he was also a dad who knew how to throw a birthday party.

PaulTYoungPapers_M100_MiscLettersAndPapers_Watermarked

Paul T. Young papers, box M100, folder “Miscellaneous” 

 

And here’s a photo of renowned social psychologists Carolyn & Muzafer Sherif with one of their children.

MurphyPapers_V40_folder2_Sherifs_Watermarked

Gardner and Lois B. Murphy papers, box V40, folder 2

 

And finally, we all know Abraham Maslow as the psychologist at the very heart of humanistic psychology who devised the well-known and oft-cited theory of the hierarchy of needs.

He was someone’s dad.

MaslowPapers_M4439_folder7_AnnKaplanLetter

Abraham Maslow papers, box M4439, folder “Biographical 3”

 

 

 

 

 

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-contributed by Arianna Iliff.

As a Graduate Student Assistant here at the CCHP, I get to explore our collections for researchers and find resources to assist them in their research. In the process of doing so, I find some truly interesting gems, and record them in a word document called “Nifty Surprises.” I thought I would share some with you today:

Harrower_SquareDancing_OS67_MapCaseDrawer5

Molly Harrower papers, OS67, map case 5

 

I’ve had the chance to get to know Molly Harrower: not just as a psychologist, but as a person. She was a skilled writer, and throughout the Harrower papers, you can even find snippets of poetry. But did you know that we have her “Bachelor of Square Dancing” degree?

OS67, Map Case 5 (molly's cats 2)

Molly died in 1999. If Molly were alive today, I bet she’d get a huge kick out of internet cat videos–clearly a gal after my own heart. Molly Harrower papers, OS67, map case 5.

How about this lovely chalk drawing of her cat? That’s one thing that I’ve enjoyed about my time here: when you have access to data, manuscripts, and unexpected errata such as this, history becomes more tangible than anything you could read in a textbook.

Maslow_M4413_folder7 (Huxley pamphlet)

I wish my favorite author would send me an autographed pamphlet. I’m not bitter though. Abraham Maslow Papers, box M4413, folder 7.

Finding this gem made my jaw drop: “THE Aldous Huxley? Sci-fi writer extraordinaire?” Oh yes! Abe Maslow and Aldous Huxley were indeed friends, due to their mutual interest in peak experiences and the Human Potential Movement. Interestingly, one of my favorite family therapists, Virginia Satir, was also a part of the movement!

V37_folder 2 (furiosa and max)

 Henry H. Goddard papers, V37, folder 2.

Stay with me on this one: okay, have you seen Mad Max: Fury Road? You know that scene where Charlize Theron as Imperator Furiosa aims a shot off of Max’s shoulder? My first thought when I found this image in the Goddard Papers was of exactly that!

Unfortunately, this image is not labeled with names or any such identifiers, and we don’t know who these people were in relation to Goddard. So when I think of this image, I just think of it as “that picture of early 20th century Max and Furiosa.”

V35_folder6 (D Johannsen, M Crook, R Leeper, Bony)

Three grad students, studying at a table with a model human skeleton. Caption: Caption on reverse states “graduate student life at Clark,” listing the names Dorothea Johannsen (Crook), Mason N. Crook, Robert W. Leeper, and Bony. AHAP Still Images collection, V35, folder 6.

When I came across this photo in our photo archives, I think that as a second-semester graduate student, I related to Bony the skeleton on a spiritual level. I felt that this photo needed a hilarious caption, such as “I’m coping with the workload just fine,” or “finals week is a real killer,” or perhaps ”I choose the sweet embrace of death over one more day in this program.”

On a serious note, I’ll say this: as an undergraduate, I chose studying sociology over psychology because for some reason, the sociological perspective was easier for me to connect with. However, since I’ve been working at the CCHP, I’ve had the opportunity to physically touch history, learning while helping others learn. Most people are surprised when I tell them the only place like this in the world is in Akron, but the fact of the matter is that the famous psychologists we learn about in 100-level classes, or whose research we draw upon, are more than just vague, long-deceased monoliths, but human beings who lived, worked, and thought. It excites me tremendously that you, too could experience history like I have, once our museum re-opens to the public. I hope you’ll stop on by!

 

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