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– contributed by Chelsea Chamberlin, Doctoral Candidate, University of Pennsylvania.

CCHP: Dates of on-site research visit at CCHP:

CC: June 25, 2018 – July 13, 2018

CCHP: What led you to the CCHP?

CC: Having completed my comprehensive exams in the spring, the CCHP was my first big research trip for my dissertation. I first learned about the archives in Akron from the citations in Paul McReynolds’s biography of Lightner Witmer while writing a research paper in my first year. A quick search of their catalog revealed they had the papers of so many people I knew would appear in my dissertation! Little did I know that McReynolds would provide even more exciting information in the archive itself.

CCHP: What were you looking for and why?

CC: The CCHP has the personal collections of a number of psychologists who are important figures in my dissertation, among them Henry Herbert Goddard, J.E. Wallace Wallin, and Leta Stetter Hollingworth. Although I had read some of these psychologists’ published works, I was hoping that their collections would hold more insight into their day-to-day lives, and especially how their professional and personal lives intersected with each other.

CCHP: What did you find?

CC: These collections did not disappoint. I gained a much better understanding of each of these psychologists’ ideologies, personalities, and personal and professional networks.

The person I feel I got to know best was J.E. Wallace Wallin. Very little has been written about Wallin; his reputation as an educational psychologist celebrates the sheer number of diagnostic clinics and “special school” systems that he established throughout the US. His correspondence, though, indicates that this accomplishment was no intentional plan of Wallin’s, but rather a consequence of his quite cantankerous personality. He was rarely happy where he was, and the people around him were rarely happy either. And so, he shuffled about the country from position to position, looking for administrators who wouldn’t infuriate him and the reputation he felt he deserved. This isolation and discontent, I suspect, helped him speak out against the spread of and reliance on intelligence testing, despite the fact that testing’s founder and advocate, H.H. Goddard, was one of his mentors. Indeed, Goddard and Wallin corresponded regularly, though often with frustration as Wallin complained and Goddard told him to sit tight and suck it up. Perhaps my favorite find was a line in a letter when Goddard finally lost his temper, writing: “The fact is, Wallin, there are several points of resemblance between you and a jack-ass.” Quite a surprise coming from the otherwise mild-mannered Quaker!

CCHP: Were there any fun, interesting, or unexpected surprises?

CC: This question brings me back to Paul McReynolds, whose papers are also held at the CCHP. These papers are mostly the physical manifestations of his research method for the Witmer biography. They not only provided an enlightening (for me) look at how one did research before the internet age, they also revealed a separate collection that had not been accessed in over a decade, and which had not shown up in my catalog searches. Lightner Witmer founded the nation’s first Psychological Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896, and in his research McReynolds had accessed the records of that clinic. The records had been placed on microfilm and sent to the CCHP, and the originals at Penn destroyed. A letter between McReynolds and John Popplestone, the founder and then-director of the archives, mentioned this microfilm. I showed the letter to Lizette Barton, who set upon a search and found the microfilm! These case records can shed light on some of the central questions of my project: What motivated parents to bring a child to a clinic? How did they narrate their child’s perceived disability? What factors shaped the diagnoses and treatment recommendations given, and how did parents implement or ignore those recommendations?

CCHP: Any let downs? 

CC: The microfilm raised new and important ethical questions. These clinic records contain the lives of real people, and because visitors were often young children, some of them may still be alive. Archivists are stewards of not only paper records, but the lives and dignity of the people contained within them. Historians, too, are responsible for honoring the lives and personhood of our subjects, and this means respecting their privacy as much as we can. For me, this duty is magnified by the nature of how my subjects entered the historical record: as often involuntary patients, as children, many of whom were institutionalized. The let down, then, was discovering that the records exist, and then deciding with the archivists that these ethical considerations meant I could not look at them–yet.

CCHP: What’s next?

CC: Because the names of these patients must be protected, the CCHP is working to find out how the records can be duplicated and redacted. This way, these valuable sources can be accessed, not only by me, but by other researchers as well, while keeping identifiable information out of the public record.

CCHP: Have any final thoughts?

CC: I want to thank the CCHP, especially Lizette Barton and Arianna Iliff. Three weeks is a long time to spend in one archive, and they pulled an absurd number of boxes without complaint. Lizette shouldered the task of finding the microfilm, unearthing it’s provenance (where it came from), and determining how to balance privacy with access. All the staff at the CCHP were welcoming and helpful–even loaning me a bike so I could explore Akron and commute to the archive each day! And they did all of this immediately after hosting a conference, a daunting and exhausting tasks. Thank you!

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Chelsea working in the reading room during her visit – summer 2018

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contributed by CCHP graduate assistant Arianna Iliff.

Conference season is upon us, and between all the seminars, workshops, forums, keynotes, poster sessions, and opportunities for continuing education credit, psychologists like to have fun too. Today, in honor of National Anti-Boredom month, we explore some gems from the AHAP special interest collection, specifically from a variety of professional conference programs.

Professional conferences offer not only educational presentations for psychologists, but also opportunities to network and socialize with fellow professionals. For some, the big annual conference of their favorite organization might be the only time during the year that they get to meet up with particular friends and colleagues. Even in 1967, conference planners with the Tri-State Group Psychotherapy Society were responsive to this with various social activities.

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Sometimes, this looks like a simple “social hour,” for others, this might be a coffee-and-donuts session or other informal gathering.

American Psychological Society

The organization Association for Psychological Science, formerly the American Psychological Society, is known for its focus on the advancement of quality research and good scientific practice in psychology. However, their ability to create conferences with a breadth of interesting activities is also worth mentioning. In 1992, a two-part film festival with topics relevant to psychology was part of the conference activities.

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In 2003, APS took advantage of Atlanta’s great zoo, offering the opportunity to “hang out with your friends (human and animal alike),” which I imagine is a nod to the animal behaviorists among them.

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The year 2004 offered a chance to enjoy comedy at Chicago’s Second City.

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The Association for Behavior Analysis

The psychologists of the ABA, or currently the ABAI, are evidently a lighthearted bunch. Two conference programs show evidence of fantastic entertainment. The 1979 conference dedicated several program events to fun activities: the “behavioral boogie,” a mini-marathon, a performing arts talent show with a focus on behavioral science, and even a banquet with two key figures in behaviorism! I can only imagine the kind of academic fandom that participants felt. What I wouldn’t do to meet some of my professional idols!

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Their 1990 conference in Nashville included a grand dance and banquet featuring a Grammy-winning country-western artist. Like APS, they chose to take advantage of the spirit of their conference location. Additionally, when pulling this program from our collection, you can find a ticket to Jacksonville State University’s after-dinner hospitality suite—very fancy.

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Clinical Hypnotism

When I found these materials, I showed our Digital Projects Manager, Dr. Jodi Kearns. When I expressed my amusement at the fun activities available to clinical hypnotists, she quipped, “they know how to relax.” Clearly! The 1975 meeting of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis dedicates a full page of their program to enjoying the sights during their Seattle-based proceedings. With a luncheon at a waterfall, a Seattle harbor cruise, a dinner theater event that includes “kosher turkey,” a champagne brunch at the Space Needle, and a glamorous party that includes dancing until “____”. Anyone knows that when the invitation puts a blank space where the end time should be, it’s going to be a good time. The art on the front page of the program accurately describes these events: “Great! Useful! Worthwhile! Timely!”

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As the pièce de résistance, let’s end our exploration of conference fun here: at the Seminars for Hypnosis cruise. With a full itinerary of academic and fun activities both in and out of port, participants had access to the whole of the ship. I’ve heard it whispered that some people treat conferences like their vacations, but it seems that Seminars for Hypnosis didn’t even try to hide it.

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 So for those of you headed to conferences this summer and fall, I wish you easy travel, good knowledge, and great fun!

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-contributed by Emily Gainer.

The Victor D. Sanua papers are open for research! The collections of 135 boxes showcases Sanua’s variety of research interests. Sanua was a clinical psychologist who focused on cross-cultural issues of mental health.  Research topics included in the collection are: cross-cultural studies of mental illness; schizophrenia; autism; Jewish communities and Jews of Egypt; and prescription privileges. Documents in the collection include correspondence, administrative files, research files, written works, and photographs.

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Victor D. Sanua papers, Box M6359, Folder 1

Victor D. Sanua (1920-2009) was born in Egypt and attended American University at Cairo, graduating with two bachelor’s degrees in Social Sciences and Education in 1945 and 1947, respectively. He immigrated to the United States in 1950. Sanua continued his education at Michigan State University where he received his master’s degree in experimental psychology in 1953 and a doctorate in clinical psychology in 1956, with a minor in sociology and anthropology. Throughout his career, Sanua studied Jewish communities, including Egyptian Jews, and worked to preserve his family history as Jews of Egypt.

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Sanua at the International Council of Psychologists meeting, 1994. Box M6490, Folder 32.

Sanua started his career as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University’s Department of Social Relations (1958-1960). He also pursued post-graduate studies at New York’s Bellevue Hospital and New York Hospital-Cornell University Medical School. He also served as Director of Research at the Associated Young Men’s and Young Women’s Hebrew Association of Greater New York from 1960-1965.

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Sanua at a meeting of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP), 1995. Box M6492, Folder 2.

Sanua was an associate professor at Yeshiva University in the School of Social Work and the School of Education (1960-1967). He then served a a professor at the City College of the City University of New York (1967-1976) and the Adelphi University School of Social Work (1976-1980). Finally, he was a professor of psychology at St. John’s University (1980-1990) and a research professor from 1990 until his death in 2009.

 

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-Contributed by Rhonda Rinehart.

If there’s one person who had many, many opportunities to be stressed out – and pretty much all the time – it was Charles D. Spielberger.  By the standards of some of his own assessments developed to measure stress, he was in the thick of it.  His professional life was demanding.  He traveled the world.  He was a leader on numerous projects and research endeavors – often simultaneously.  He held high office within his profession.  People constantly hounded him for professional references and research assistance.  He was evaluated by his peers, and also by supervisors and officials.  He planned international conferences.  He edited professional journals.  He made – and retained – professional relationships with VIPs in the biz.

Sample questions from the Job Stress Survey (JSS) developed by Spielberger and P. R. Vagg, 1999
Charles D. Spielberger papers, Boxes M6050-M6062, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

These are only a few random samples out of 30 questions.  After spending the better part of the last three years sorting and organizing the vast collection of materials that comprise the life of Charles D. Spielberger, I can say with a fair amount of certainty that he experienced any number of the above situations on a regular basis.

And just how well did he respond to these potential stressors?  I suppose we can never know exactly how Spielberger felt inside at any given moment, but after getting to know him a bit through organizing his life in professional papers, I have two separate impressions of how Spielberger possibly handled his own stress.  1.)  It would be quite difficult to accomplish all that he accomplished through a career spanning six decades if he did not handle stress well.  2.)  On the other hand, his long incursion into stress was insightful and somewhat sympathetic to the ever-present afflictions of anxiety, nervousness, tension and worry attributed to stress that affect so many lives.  It seems difficult to spend so much time on a topic of research and develop such acclaimed assessments about stress if he didn’t perhaps feel the nagging results of it from time to time.

We all process and react to stress differently depending on a number of factors.  And this can make a big difference when it comes to how we live our lives.  For Spielberger, stress was apparently not debilitating, though he knew full well it could be for some.  I would contend that Spielberger may have even enjoyed some of the byproducts of stress – endorphin rush, pushing himself to do better and do more.

Promotional button for STRESSCARE Systems, Inc., Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M6034, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

As a member of the National Scientific Advisory Council for STRESSCARE Systems during 1985-1988, Spielberger lent his growing expertise on stress to this, and many other, workshops that gave people tools to understanding their own personal stressors and how to live with them, if not completely eliminate them.

An early assessment test developed by Spielberger, the foundation for which many other assessment tools were built upon, lists and aggregates feelings associated with stress and anxiety.  Many adaptations of the STAI (below) were developed for children, personalities, countries, vocations, and other situations.  Some of Spielberger’s most interesting and currently relevant work was done in the area of police stress and subsequent selection of police officers.

Sample questions from early edition of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) developed by Spielberger, R. L. Gorsuch and R. Lushene, 1968; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Boxes M6094-M6102, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

Lest you think stress was all Spielberger was about, think again.  His infinite curiosity and tireless industriousness made him open to all sorts of life experiences, including retiring from the U.S. Naval Reserve with the rank of Commander – and meeting with Carl Sagan.

Charles Spielberger (3rd row, 3rd from right), Commissioned Officers Training Course, Ninth Session, 1955; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M5875, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

 

Spielberger, as the University of South Florida Distinguished Research Professor, congratulating Carl Sagan, first recipient of the Carl Sagan Award for Public Appreciation of Science, 1993; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M5870, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

Spielberger served as the 1991-1992 APA president.  This professional watermark is a culmination of a professional life steeped in research, contributions to the field, making connections and forging friendships.  All rewarding, but certainly stressful as well.

 

Endorsement letter for Charles Spielberger as APA President, Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M6215, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

 

Congratulatory letter to Charles Spielberger from director of The Israeli Institute for Military Studies, 1989; Charles D. Spielberger papers, Box M5619, Cummings Center for the History of Psychology.

 

Others continue to build upon Spielberger’s legacy by using his research and adapting his tests globally to further our understanding of stress and its effects on our lives.  Something that Charles Spielberger noticed as a human commonality.

See what more you can discover about Charles Spielberger – and possibly yourself – by delving into the Charles D. Spielberger papers, now open for research at the Cummings Center.

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contributed by Lizette R. Barton.

Like countless others I considered Dr. Joseph White a mentor and a friend and I was heartbroken to learn of his sudden passing in November. Joe White changed my life. He truly, honestly changed the course of my life and I will be forever grateful to him. I know that many of us have Joe White stories – stories of friendship, mentorship, inspiration, and education. I’d like to take this opportunity to share mine.

In 2003 I was a third year undergraduate psychology major at The University of Akron and I was enrolled in the History of Psychology course. David Baker, now my colleague but at the time just my professor for the course, invited Joe White to speak to our class.

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Joe White addressing Dave Baker’s History of Psychology class in 2007

He was insightful and his lecture was thought provoking. I think we can all agree that he was an incredible public speaker who could totally command an audience. At one point in his talk he mentioned the book Even the Rat was White by Robert Guthrie. I headed to the library directly after class and got that book and read it that night. I know this sounds totally cliche but as a white girl who grew up in a very rural, very white community Joe’s lecture and that book were a watershed moment. I quickly learned there is no “the history” but rather “a history” and oftentimes people are silenced and omitted from “the” history so many of us learn about in school.

Dr. Baker encouraged me to contact Dr. White and we quickly struck up a friendship. He wrote me letters of recommendation for graduate school and when I didn’t get in and was heartbroken he helped me reevaluate and realize that I had a real passion for history and archives so maybe not getting into a psychology graduate program wasn’t the worst thing on earth.

As a student assistant in the archives, and later a part-time staff member, I was assigned to process the Robert V. Guthrie manuscript papers and Joe offered to help fund my travel to Hollywood, CA in 2005 in order to see Dr. Guthrie recognized as an elder at the National Multicultural Conference and Summit. My favorite memory from the trip was sharing Manhattans and laughs seated between Dr. Guthrie and Dr. White at the hotel bar. They were impressed I could hold my alcohol “for a country girl” and I wore that as a badge of honor.

We stayed in touch for years and  would make a point to get together for drinks or dinner during his many trips to Akron for UA’s annual Black Male Summit.

By 2007 I was a full-time staff member at the Cummings Center. I decided to take advantage of the opportunity for free UA classes and enrolled in Dr. Zach Williams’ History of Hip Hop class. The topic of the “generational gap” came up again and again in course lectures and readings and when it came time to complete a final project I knew I had to talk to Joe.

The following audio clip was part of my final project for the class. I recorded my interview with Joe and then put some of his words to music. It’s “not safe for work” in that it contains explicit language but Joe’s words are powerful and I am just as inspired by them now as I was then.

Rest easy, Joe. And keep the faith.

 

 

 

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Contributed by Justin Veda, Megan Oswald, Ryan Robinson, and Anthony Pankuch.

At the crossroads of confident and creative lies Bernard Saper. A man so bold he sent his writing to the likes of Oprah Winfrey and attempted to cast such A-list actors as Robin Williams in his potential movies. He would do all of this in the pursuit of understanding the effects of humor on the human mind. There are few others like him; he is truly one of a kind in the world of psychology. The Bernard Saper papers are now available to researchers.

Bernard Saper obituary (Box M6308, Folder 4)

 

Bernard Saper was born December 16, 1920 in Brooklyn, New York. He earned his bachelor’s degree in psychology from Brooklyn College in 1946. He received his master’s degree from Columbia University and a doctoral degree in clinical psychology from the University of California in 1952. Saper became director of psychological services at the New York State Department of Mental Hygiene in 1958, and in 1965 he was appointed director of the Bureau of Functional Programming, where he advised architects on the design of facilities. In 1967, he began work as a faculty member of the Albany Medical College, and two years later became professor of psychology and director of the Institute for Psychological Applications at the University of Maine. He would go on to become professor of psychology at Florida International University. He was a founding member of the South Florida School of Professional Psychology.

Two awards for outstanding contribution and appreciation dedicating Saper’s service and development of psychology. (Box M6308, Folder 1, 7)

There are many wonders and hidden gems to be discovered in the 11 boxes that contain the Bernard Saper papers. See notes and research compiled by Bernard Saper in his research surrounding the psychology of humor in the Research Files series. Look through the Academic Files series to see the very notes he used in teaching his lectures to the next generation of psychologists in his various teaching roles. And, read through original rough drafts of his book Conditional Triumph along with never-before-seen books and teleplays waiting to be read within the Written Works series. Please note some files are restricted.

Summary of unproduced teleplay of “Surrogate” by Bernard Saper (Box M6306, Folder 1)

The processing of this archival collection fulfilled requirements for students enrolled in the course Foundations of Museums and Archives I and was generously sponsored by the EX[L] Center at The University of Akron.

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Contributed by Jillian Phipps, Pennie Fordham, and Katherine Gray.

Have you ever wondered where the idea that positive actions should be rewarded came from? Have you ever wondered where the concept of bad behavior being its own punishment came from? If so, then check out the Sidney Bijou papers, which are now available for research at the CCHP.

Sidney Bijou (1908-2009) was a psychologist who specialized in child psychology, behaviorism, and studies on autism. Many of Bijou’s studies showed that encouraging good behavior led to more good behavior, more so than when bad behavior was punished. Bijou traveled all over the world to give symposiums on his research.

Sidney Bijou towards the start of his career, undated. From box M6303, Folder 6

 

Sidney Bijou later in his career, undated. From box M6303, Folder 6

 

Name badge from the Portage Conference in Hiroshima in 1998. From box M6292, Folder 9

Some of Bijou’s major works include Behavior Analysis of Child Development (1993) and Childhood Development: The Basic Stage of Early Childhood (1976).   He contributed to other works, such as New Directions in Behavior Development and Behavior Modification: Contributions to Education, both with Emilio Ribes-Inesta.

The Sidney Bijou papers include his academic works, from when he was in college as a student to when he was teaching as a professor; his research files for his written works; manuscripts of the written works themselves; reference files that show what he was working on year to year; and biographical information on his career that he compiled himself. His papers contain 13 boxes of archival materials. These files contain most of his work in child psychology, behaviorism, and autism research.

Of special note in Bijou’s files is his work on effective teaching and treatment methods for autistic children (1990-1998). In these files, Bijou has different curricula, class designs, and possible ways to assist autistic children in integrating into the public school system.

Example of the worksheets Bijou used to assess how well schools were integrating autistic children. From box M6293, Folder 7.

 

The processing of this archival collection fulfilled requirements for students enrolled in the course Foundations of Museums and Archives I and was generously sponsored by the EX[L] Center at the University of Akron.

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