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~ contributed by Jodi Kearns

Psychologist Dr. Robert S. Waldrop was a chaplain aboard the USS Benevolence, a hospital ship stationed in Japanese waters during summer and fall of 1945 after the atomic bombs were dropped.

written on back of photograph: "AH-13 Benevolence docked Yokahama August 1945"

written on back of photograph: “AH-13 Benevolence docked Yokahama August 1945″ [M1623 Folder 13]

 

 

on the deck of USS Benevolence

on the deck of USS Benevolence [M1623 Folder 3]

In a blog post from 2012, you can read more about Dr. Waldrop’s contributions and you can listen to a 2012 recording of conversation between Dr. Waldrop and CHP Director Dr. David Baker discussing these photographs and Dr. Waldrop’s work on the USS Benevolence.

Dr. Waldrop captured photographs with own camera during his 1945 deployment to Japan. Low-resolution images of the whole collection are available for review in the CHP online repository: http://collections.uakron.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p15960coll2/id/4944. In this post, we give a close-up excerpt of this collection.

 

On September 2, 1945, the Japanese surrendered. Dr. Waldrop captured the spontaneous prayer vigil held at the announcement of the end of the war.

written on back of photograph: "Docked in Yokosuka @ Announcement of end of War. I held prayers of thanks for our crew AH-13 and other ships docked 8-6-45"

written on back of photograph: “Docked in Yokosuka @ Announcement of end of War. I held prayers of thanks for our crew AH-13 and other ships docked 8-6-45″ [M1623 Folder 1]

 

Released prisoners and other patients of Allied forces were transported to the USS Benevolence for treatment.

wounded coming aboard

wounded coming aboard [M1623 Folder 6]

 

Dr. Waldrop played his instrument in the USS Benevolence 14-piece band.

written on back of photograph: "USS Benevolence Band (14 piece); RSW organized, got instruments donated while in Brooklyn Shipyard. We played in/out of every port and many special occasions underway."

written on back of photograph: “USS Benevolence Band (14 piece); RSW organized, got instruments donated while in Brooklyn Shipyard. We played in/out of every port and many special occasions underway.” [M1623 Folder 11]

 

The USO visited the deck of the hospital ship. (I think the performer in the hat might be Eddie Bracken. What do you think?)

USO entertainers; Tokyo Bay; 1945

USO entertainers; Tokyo Bay; 1945 [M1623 Folder 3]

 

Dr. Waldrop and his shipmates also spent time in the skies

written on back of photograph: "scenes of Nagasaki. RSW took these from a bay door of a navy seaplane"

written on back of photograph: “scenes of Nagasaki. RSW took these from a bay door of a navy seaplane” [M1623 Folder 6]

and on the land

Robert S. Waldrop in Yokohama

Robert S. Waldrop in Yokohama [M1623 Folder 16]

written on back of photograph: "shot from Theater Street in Yokahama showing a canal running down the center of town. A clean job of bombinb on one side of the canal"

written on back of photograph: “shot from Theater Street in Yokahama showing a canal running down the center of town. A clean job of bombing on one side of the canal” [M1623 Folder 14]

surveying the damage caused by the atomic bombs dropped on Japan.

[M1623 Folder 17]

written on back of photograph: "some of my shipmates viewing the results of the "A" bomb, Nagasaki 1945"

written on back of photograph: “some of my shipmates viewing the results of the “A” bomb, Nagasaki 1945″ [M1623 Folder 17]

 

This rich collection of photographs can be viewed in its entirety in our online repository and onsite with a scheduled visit. Also check out the finding aid for more information about the Robert S. Waldrop papers. Contact ahap@uakron.edu to schedule a research appointment.

Contributed by Emily Gainer.

Werner Wolff (1904-1957) was a man of many interests – psychology, anthropology, graphology, and religion. Gordon W. Allport wrote to Wolff on March 24, 1952: “In fact, I think you are the broadest-gauged psychologist alive” (Box M4845, Folder 4). Wolff’s research and writing in these areas are documented in the Werner Wolff papers, which are now open for research at the CHP.

 

Werner Wolff portrait, 1944.  Box M4844, Folder 1.

Werner Wolff portrait, 1944. Box M4844, Folder 1.

Wolff was born in Germany and completed his doctorate under Max Wertheimer at the University of Berlin in 1930. He was a Lecturer of Psychology at the University of Barcelona and Madrid from 1933-1936, before coming to the United States in 1939. Wolff taught at Bard College in New York from 1942 until his death in 1957.

Wolff’s German passport. Wolff left Germany in 1933.  Box M4844, Folder 2.

Wolff’s German passport. Wolff left Germany in 1933. Box M4844, Folder 2.

 

Wolff may be most remembered as the originator of experimental depth psychology. His first book in English was The Expression of Personality: Experimental Depth Psychology (1943). Additionally, he studied expressions and graphic form, specifically that unconscious movements and handwriting are keys to an individual’s personality. He also translated the hieroglyphics of the ancient natives of Easter Island and the Mayans.

 

Wolff studied “forms of expression (expressions of personality)”, part of which was to take a person’s portrait, then split the portrait down the middle and reverse half the face.  The new portrait of the person’s “right” and “left” face was shown to the person, who was asked which face he preferred.  This type of study reached a general audience when it was covered in Life magazine on January 18, 1943.

Wolff studied “forms of expression (expressions of personality)”, part of which was to take a person’s portrait, then split the portrait down the middle and reverse half the face. The new portrait of the person’s “right” and “left” face was shown to the person, who was asked which face he preferred. This type of study reached a general audience when it was covered in Life magazine on January 18, 1943.

 

Wolff’s research and involvement in the psychology field brought him in contact with some notable individuals. For example, the papers contain correspondence with art and artists, such as Langston Hughes, Louise Bogan (Poet Laureate), and Archibald MacLeish (Pulitzer Prize winner).

 

A letter from Langston Hughes to Wolff, 1951. Box M4869, Folder 4.

A letter from Langston Hughes to Wolff, 1951. Box M4869, Folder 4.

 

Letter from Vice President Richard Nixon responding to Wolff’s proposal for an Inter-American Institute of Psychology, 1957. Box M4898, Folder 2.

Letter from Vice President Richard Nixon responding to Wolff’s proposal for an Inter-American Institute of Psychology, 1957. Box M4898, Folder 2.

 

Wolff placed this 1955 letter from Helen Keller in a folder titled, “Handwriting”.  One of Wolff’s main areas of study was how handwriting and signature relate to one’s personality. Box M4857, Folder 4.

Wolff placed this 1955 letter from Helen Keller in a folder titled, “Handwriting”. One of Wolff’s main areas of study was how handwriting and signature relate to one’s personality. Box M4857, Folder 4.

 

For more information about the contents of the Werner Wolff papers, search the finding aid. Please contact us to view the manuscript materials.

-Contributed by Nicole Dunlap.

Incunabula. Vellum. Colophon. It may sound like I’m speaking another language, and although it is technically English, rare books kind of do have a language of their own. My duties here at the CHP are usually limited to processing and digitizing the apparatus collection. However, lately I decided to expand my horizons and dive into the world of old and rare books at the CHP. I had no idea of the vast amount of analysis and study that goes into this specialization, not to mention a whole set of vocabulary!

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This month’s Book of the Month blog is going to be a little different. Usually someone here at the CHP takes some time to highlight one of the books we have in our collection. I’m going to highlight THREE books. But I’m not going to discuss content. We are going to explore some of the physical aspects of these books. I want to give you, and myself, a little taste of the kinds of things rare book librarians and collectors concern themselves with. You may be surprised. I sure was!

 

The books we are going to talk about are three very different works. One is in French, one in Latin, and one in English, and the publishing dates range from 1634 to 1842. I’m going to take some time to investigate each book a little further to show you the kinds of things specialists in this field look for.

Book #1:

rarebookblog1

Title: De Lacrymis Libri Tres (Roughly translates: Book Three of the Leading Physicians of Paris)

Language: Latin

Author: Pierre Petit (1617-1687)

Publisher: Parisiis, Apud Claudium Cramoisy, 1661

Physical Characteristics: 221 pages (but page 221 is wrongly numbered as 212)
-Possible vellum binding. Vellum is the skin of a calf used for book binding.

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-Includes index in the front of the book with a list of chapters.
-Includes index in the back of the book that includes a list of vocabulary terms.
-Stamp at the end of the book that translates to “Thank you Jesus.”

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-Illustration on the inside of the front cover.

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-Illustration on cover page. Text translates to “I will sacrifice fat or lean offer.”

Book #2:

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Title: Pantology; or, A Systematic Survey of Human Knowledge

Language: English

Author: Roswell Park

Publisher: Hogan & Thompson, Philadelphia, 1842

 

 

 

 

 

rarebookblog9

Printer: C. Sherman & Co.

Physical Characteristics: 540 pages
-Unique gold design on binding, front cover. Possible illumination. A book is illuminated when it is decorated by hand, often with gold, silver and colored inks.

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-Includes bibliography and index.
-Stamp on inside of cover that says “H.H. Thompson” with date of June 30th, 1883. Often times, incunabula (books printed in the infancy of printing, typically before 1501) have what’s known as supralibros, which are heraldic motifs stamped on the outer surface of the binding in order to identify the owner.
-Includes many illustrations throughout text.

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Book #3:

rarebookblog2

Title: Nouvelles Pensees Sur Les Causes de la Lumiere, du Debordement du Nil et de l’Amour d’Inclination (Roughly translates: New Thoughts on the Causes of Light, Overflow of the Nile, and the Love of Inclination). There is also a second text included titled: Nouvelles Coniectures sur la Digestion (Roughly translates: New Conjectures on Digestion).

Language: French

Author: Marin Cureau de la Chambre

Publisher: Pierre Rocolet, Paris, 1634

Physical Characteristics: 163 pages
-Rebound with colorful patterned binding.
-Marginal notes included throughout the text.

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-Illustration on cover page.
-Includes an extract from the License of the King

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-Detailed illustrations included throughout.

There are many other features that rare book collectors look for when examining these kinds of texts, such as:

-Colophon: a note at the end of the book that includes name of work, author, printer, place of printing and date

-Rubrication: when a heading or section of a book is written or printed in red letters

-Tooling: a designed impression made on the cover of a book, engraved by a metal tool

-Woodcut: when an illustration is made using wood rather than metal

And many more! Like I said, it’s like there is a whole other language to describe these books!

I learned a lot while examining and researching these old texts. I had no idea how much goes into collecting and preserving rare books. Every little detail is evaluated and deciphered. It’s amazing! Although I only got a tiny little taste of what it would be like to specialize in old and rare books, I enjoyed every last minute. It really is a special treat to touch something made in 1634. Ah, and the smell! (You book nerds out there know what I’m talking about). Take some time to explore something you know very little about; it may surprise you how rewarding it is. So, open up that book into the unknown, whatever that may be for you, turn the pages, and dive in!

Stephanie_ M Harrower - Headshot-B wm

Molly Harrower, 1906 – 1999

 

-Contributed by Stephanie Cameron.

Stephanie Cameron has volunteered and worked at the Center for the History of Psychology for several years and is currently processing photographs from the Molly Harrower papers.

Molly Harrower (1906-1999) received her Ph.D. in 1934, working with E.G. Boring, Arnold Gesell, and Kurt Koffka. Over the course of her career, she focused on  electrical brain stimulation, the Rorschach test, psychodiagnostics, consulting, and psychotherapy. She also served as a Military Consultant for the United States Air Force and Army.

Medical Field Service School

Medical Field Service School

As one of the first women to practice psychology in a male dominated profession, Harrower experienced the effects of prejudice and inequality by men and women. Refusing to waver in her aspirations, she accomplished many of her goals and became the first woman to dine in the Montefiore Hospital doctor’s dining room.

Stephanie_ M Harrower - Panel-B wm

At the age of 61, Harrower joined the University of Florida as a faculty member and taught Clinical Psychology.

Stephanie_MHarrower - Tubing - B wm

Harrower, tubing with her students.

 

While Harrower dedicated her life to the field of psychology, research, practice, and writing, she had several hobbies. She was passionate about animals and their care, writing poetry, swimming, and golfing. For her 80th birthday, she took an opportunity to swim with manatees.

Stephanie_ M Harrower - 80th b-day-B wm

Stephanie_M Harrower - Cubs -B wm

Based on the interpretation of the rich Molly Harrower collection housed at the Center for the History of Psychology, Harrower would have encouraged us to work past our barriers, think outside of the box, and to LIVE!

As she said in 1946, “Life, you will lose a lover when I die!” (cited in Harrower, 1946, Time to squander, time to reap. New Bedford, MA: Reynolds)

Stephanie_ M Harrower-Life-B wm

-Contributed by Nicky Dunlap.

Although I usually leave the archives at the CHP with a little something extra (usually it’s dirt on my face, tape on my clothes, or packing peanuts stuck to my body), sometimes that little something extra is an experience. Today, I had the opportunity to travel back through time. Before Facebook, before Netflix, before wi-fi. I took a trip back to 1981 (before I was even born!). So, buckle up. I’m going to take you on a ride. Together, we’re going on a journey to the past!

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It’s crazy to think of our world without the technology we have today. I was born in 1990, so I grew up around technology, and I’ve watched it evolve in so many ways. Sometimes it’s nice to get a little taste of what our world was like before technology. You imagine how exciting it must have been when the first computers were beginning to emerge. Little did we know that our whole world was about to change.

Today while I was doing my thing, processing artifacts, going through object after object, I came across a big box that was almost too heavy to lift. Inside was a blast from the past. A computer system so big that I couldn’t even wrap my arms around it. Not quite the same as the mini iPads and notebooks we have today.

It’s 1981. A new machine has just been invented. A computerized testing system that was used to perform psychological testing on subjects. Dr. Ann M. O’Roark, a prominent clinical psychologist, was deep into the process of opening testing centers for these machines to be used.

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The machines were very large and heavy, and they look similar to a big computer monitor. They had letter and number keys, recall and next buttons, and “yes,” “no,” and “don’t know” keys. Participants would sit at these machines, answering questions displayed on the screen. These machines were used to practice decision making skills and for other psychological assessment purposes.

Dr. Ann M. O’Roark was determined to open several assessment centers where these machines would be installed. We can see from her correspondence with her partner, Del R. Poling, that she had many ideas for the development of these centers.

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Along with correspondence with Poling and other miscellaneous notes, we were also provided with manuals and brochures for the Psychometer 3000 and a box of floppy discs full of data for the testing system.

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Here is one letter from Dr. O’Roark to Poling that I find to be personal and charming, yet still expressing the importance of the project they were working on and setting it in motion:

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“Del,                                                 October 18, 1981

Hope you are feeling better in at least a dozen ways.

I have updated a statement of our agreements. It was surprising how many things had changed. Sure would be great if we can get flying now – for your psychological perspectives and for my last quarter’s red balance.

If you will take the time, stay in touch and follow through, there is no reason this shouldn’t be a good show.

Ann”

I don’t know about you, but I just find something about reading old letters so fascinating. It’s almost like you can picture Dr. O’Roark sitting down to write that letter to Poling. These kinds of things I find in the archives really add a whole new dimension to working at the CHP.

I hope you enjoyed our little trip to the past. Stay tuned for more interesting findings and adventures with me at the CHP!

 

-Contributed by Nicole Dunlap.

Have you ever been given the task (or pleasure) of exploring your grandparents’ attic or storage unit? You sit down and go through boxes and boxes of items full of history and character. Some items dated back to long before you were born; touched by people you’ve never met. You try to imagine the items being used by your grandparents or even being used at all. Some of the items you’ve never seen before. What are these things? How was this used? What was this used for? A black and white movie plays in your head of what things were like back then. What would it be like to live in a world where these types of things were used daily? These are questions I ask myself regularly while interning at the Center for the History of Psychology. Except instead of my grandparents, it was psychologists, doctors, professors and intellectuals that were handling these items.

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My name is Nicky, and while interning here at the CHP, I’ve learned a lot. Not only about the history of psychology, but also about the art and science of preserving, displaying and providing access to these items. Being a student of Library Science with a background in psychology, I am fascinated with the things I find in the archives at the CHP. My job is to sort through these items, collect information about them, photograph them, and share them with the public through our online collections here at the CHP. Like a kid exploring her grandparents’ attic, I relish in the smell of dust and the magic in the air as I dive into these boxes like they are portals to a past world; a world full of psychological apparatuses, measuring devices, and experimental equipment. Okay, so not all of the items I come across would be considered “magical,” but there are lots of really cool and interesting instruments with intriguing backstories. You can check out our online collection of these psychological artifacts here!

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In future blog posts, I hope to give you a little taste of the archival adventure that is my internship, but here’s a little breakdown of my daily tasks. I am working on sorting through dozens of boxes full of psychological artifacts that need to be added to our online collection. My job is to find out what these items are, what they were used for, and where they came from. After recording this data, I photograph and edit the items in a consistent way to upload to our online collection. Finally, I create labels for the boxes, and place them back on shelves, making sure to record the new location.

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It’s a lot of work: organizing, deciphering, photographing, editing, and labeling; but in reality, the CHP is similar to a big playground for me. I’m learning so much and having fun. What more could I ask for?

~ contributed by CHP student assistant Adam Beckler.

Saturday, May 17th marked the 60th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education. This landmark Supreme Court case overturned the doctrine of “separate but equal” that was established by Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. The Supreme Court’s unanimous 9-0 decision stated that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” Brown v. Board of Education was the central starting point for ending segregation in American schools and marked a major victory for the African-American Civil Rights Movement.

 

Kenneth B. Clark

Kenneth B. Clark

 

The Supreme Court’s decision was influenced by the work of social psychologist Kenneth B. Clark. Clark and his wife Mamie studied the psychological effects of skin color on young black students.

From the Center for the History of Psychology’s exhibit on Psychology and Social Change:

“The Clarks examined the racial preferences of 253 African-American children from segregated nurseries and public schools. The children were presented with four dolls – two black and two white. They were asked which doll they would like to play with or which doll they liked best. More than 65 percent of children chose a white doll.”

“Testimony given by Kenneth Clark and other psychologists was used in Brown v. Board to argue against segregation in the schools…This was the first time that social science research was explicitly cited in a Supreme Court decision. “

 

Exhibit in CHP Psychology Museum

Exhibit in CHP Psychology Museum

 

Part of the Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr. book collection, Racial Identity in Context: The Legacy of Kenneth B. Clark edited by Gina Philogène uses Clark’s work as a foundation to discuss the role of racial identity in the ongoing struggle for equality for African Americans. Racial Identity in Context examines topics including, but not limited to, racial integration today, the role of racial identity in managing daily racial hassles, resilience and self-esteem in African-Americans, and immigration.

Radical Identity in Context: The Legacy of Kenneth B. Clark

Radical Identity in Context: The Legacy of Kenneth B. Clark

The Brown v. board case was significant in the social history of the United States and it was also important in psychology’s history. As Ludy T. Benjamin, Jr. and Ellen M. Crouse suggest in the book’s conclusion, the Brown v. Board of Education decision “marks the public validation of psychology as a science.”

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