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Contributed by Devan Murphy.

Devan has worked as a student assistant at the CHP since 2012. She mainly works with the manuscript collections. She is a junior at UA, majoring in English and minoring in French, drawing, and illustration.

Innocuously perched on a shelf in CHP’s library among the multitude of volumes of psychology and philosophy texts sits Malleus Maleficarum, a 1480s treatise promoting the awareness of witches as well as the knowledge of how they may be withstood and punished. First published in Latin by Henry Kramer and James Sprenger at the apex of the witch-hunting era, CHP’s Malleus Maleficarum is one of 1275 numbered copies of the premier English edition (1928), translated and introduced by Reverend Montague Summers.

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Innocent VIII

The book is prefaced by the Bull of Innocent VIII – a charter issued by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484 in support of an investigation of magic and its evils. Following this is Kramer and Sprenger’s delineation, in three parts, of the characteristics and actions of witches, in addition to the steps for properly identifying, defeating, and punishing them.

Part one is titled “Treating of the three necessary concomitants of witchcraft which are the devil, a witch, and the permission of almighty God” and includes such chapters as “Whether the Belief that there are such Beings as Witches is so Essential a Part of the Catholic Faith that Obstinacy to maintain the Opposite Opinion manifestly savours of Heresy” and “Whether Witches can by some Glamour Change Men into Beasts”.

Part two, “Treating of the methods by which the works of witchcraft are wrought and directed, and how they may be successfully annulled and dissolved” (including such chapters as “How they are Transported from Place to Place” and “Remedies prescribed against Hailstorms, and for Animals that are Bewitched”).

Part three, “Relating to the judicial proceedings in both the ecclesiastical and civil courts against witches and indeed all heretics” (including such chapters as “Who are the Fit and Proper Judges in the Trial of Witches?” and “Of the Manner of Pronouncing a Sentence which is Final and Definitive”).

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Summers closes his introduction with the confidence that, as Kramer and Sprenger’s treatise “deals with eternal things, the eternal conflict of good and evil,” it therefore “must eternally capture the attention of all men who think, all who see, or are endeavoring to see, reality beyond the accidents of matter, time, and space” (xl). The witch-hunting zeitgeist may be past, and though the validity of Malleus Maleficarum’s subject matter is, in our era, generally refuted, there is yet no doubt that witchcraft and magic in general represent an ageless cultural interest that makes this book relevant in any time period. Besides this, Kramer and Sprenger’s work offers insight into the medieval mindset. Malleus Maleficarum is a must-read for anyone intrigued by religion, history, or the supernatural.

Contributed by Emily Gainer.

In a 1986 paper given at an APA convention, Erika Fromm wrote, “I have pioneered quite a bit in my professional life, taken on joyfully many a challenge and explored novel things. Now I am at an advanced age, but nonetheless I hope to continue to investigate new things and to fight for what I believe in for some time to come” (Psychoanalysis and Hypnoanalysis: A Professional History and a Challenge, Box M5197, Folder 9).  Fromm’s pioneering, challenging, and novel contributions to the field of psychology are documented in her manuscript papers.  These papers are now available for research at the CHP.

Erika Fromm (1910-2003) was born to a Jewish family in Germany.  During 1933, she received her Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Frankfurt, studying under Max Wertheimer.  After fleeing Nazi presence in Germany and Holland, Fromm immigrated to Chicago in 1938.  She worked as a research assistant, held a private psychotherapy practice, and began teaching in higher education. In 1961, she became a professor in the psychology department at the University of Chicago, where she would remain until her retirement.

Erika Fromm at an SCEH event in Newport Beach, 1973. Box M5135, Folder 10

Erika Fromm at an SCEH event in Newport Beach, 1973. Box M5135, Folder 10

Fromm is considered a pioneer in the use of projective psychological testing in the United States. Fromm’s greatest impact is in the fields of psychoanalysis and hypnosis. During her career, she published over 100 scholarly articles, trained thousands of clinicians, and gave workshops across the United States. Fromm continued her work well after retirement, publishing her final book in 2000.

In an early draft of her contribution to the book “Models of Achievement: Reflections of Eminent Women in Psychology, Vol. 2” (1987), Fromm summarizes her experiences as a psychologist.  Box M5198, Folder 3

In an early draft of her contribution to the book, Models of Achievement: Reflections of Eminent Women in Psychology, Vol. 2 (1987), Fromm summarizes her experiences as a psychologist. Box M5198, Folder 3

The Erika Fromm papers document the professional life of a psychoanalyst and clinical educator. The papers include correspondence, course materials, research files, and publications. Topics of particular note are hypnosis, self hypnosis, hynotherapy, hypnoanalysis, intelligence, dreams, and brain trauma.  They also document Fromm’s professional positions and involvement in professional organizations, notably the IJCEH and the SCEH.  Files relating to the self-hypnosis study conducted by Fromm are also found in this collection.

Caption: The Erika Fromm papers contain extensive files on Fromm’s self-hypnosis study.  Study participants kept diaries of their experiences (1976).  Box M5222

The Erika Fromm papers contain extensive files on Fromm’s self-hypnosis study. Study participants kept diaries of their experiences (1976). Box M5222

Diaries from the self-hypnosis study were also transcribed (1976). Box M5220, Folder 14

Diaries from the self-hypnosis study were also transcribed (1976). Box M5220, Folder 14

Search the finding aid for more information.  Please contact us to view the manuscript materials.

Contributed by Katie Clements.

Katie is a student assistant at the CHP and has worked here since summer 2013. She spends much of her time organizing and pre-cataloging the CHP book collection.  She is a junior at the University of Akron and is majoring in Business Administration. 

When the winter weather gets you down, what do you yearn for to cheer you up? Sun, of course, but also adventure and excitement! Roy Chapman Andrews’ Under a Lucky Star: A Lifetime of Adventure [New York, The Viking Press, 1943] provides just that excitement, and it lets you escape from this dreary weather for a while, too.

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Andrews was an explorer at heart, and started out at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Though he was overqualified, the only position available was for taxidermy, and he wanted so badly to work there that he accepted. His adventurous side wasn’t quite satisfied, and to be true to himself he had to make that longing for adventure his top priority. His experience in exploration began when he went overseas to collect specimen for his boss, whom he had great admiration for. He went on several more journeys over the next few years and in 1920, sailed to Mongolia with the intent of finding a link to human evolution in Asia. Unfortunately, he and his team were searching in layers of an older time period, too far back in time for what he was searching for. Though they didn’t find the link that brought them there, they instead came across numerous fossils of mammals and dinosaurs, and dinosaur eggs. To fund later expeditions, Andrews put the valuable eggs up for auction. He refused to give up, a necessary quality for a true explorer.

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The basis used for Under a Lucky Star was Andrews’ Central Asiatic Expeditions. This was the third of his Asiatic zoological expeditions. In this autobiography, Andrews describes his journey, discoveries and hardships faced while on his expeditions, and he gained popularity to the extent of stardom from it. In fact, the character of Indiana Jones was based on and created from the real life Indy, Roy Chapman Andrews.

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I don’t know about you, but curling up with a nice, intriguing and informational book sounds like the perfect thing to get my mind off of these cold winter days. Feel free to enjoy this book with friends and discuss your take on it!

**This book is part of the E. Paul and Pansy Torrance library at the Center for the History of Psychology that includes many books from the 1940s through the 1960s about adventure and survival, WWII experiences, and psychological testing of soldiers and pilots.

Contributed by Rhonda Rinehart.

Why are we sad?

Blue Monday, as Mondays in January have become known, are regarded as particularly depressing mid-winter days due to a variety of reputed factors like weather conditions, level of debt, failed resolutions and post-holiday dreariness.  Calculated from untested (and largely unscientific) formulas, and more recently from tweets, Blue Monday is nonetheless increasingly considered a by-product of cultural and societal stress and frustration.  Although not observed as scientific in nature, this “Blue Monday” analysis of the human condition isn’t new.  Indeed, perhaps because of the human condition itself, people have continuously sought understanding of what makes the human mind and emotions function.

And so this brings us to The anatomy of melancholy: What it is, with all the kinds causes, symptomes, prognostickes, & severall cures of it. : In three partitions, with their severall sections, members & subsections, philosophically, medicinally, historically, opened & cut up.  Written under the pseudonym “Democritus Junior”, author Robert Burton published the book in 1632, making it CHP’s oldest English language book.  No formulas were used in determining what brings on “melancholia” and the closest thing to a tweet in 1632 is the book’s abundant marginalia.

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At just over 720 pages, Anatomy of Melancholy is generally considered a prosaic satire on the topic of depression, particularly that of the author’s own struggle with depression.  It attempts to uncover the physical, mental and spiritual reasons for “melancholy” (depression or melancholic depression), rending it into three “partitions” within the text – 1. Causes, 2. Cure, 3. Love Melancholy.  Common thought was that melancholy was responsible for the extreme emotions associated with love, religion, and mental illness.

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Often referencing religion as it explains the roles of devils and spirits in developing melancholy in human beings, it is unclear if these explanations are also satirical in nature or simply a sincere interpretation of the belief system in place at that period of time.  Indeed, there is no scientific substantiation to complement Burton’s postulations in any of the book’s three partitions.  These two characteristics, however, are precisely why Melancholy is so arresting.  Given the book’s reputation as being a satire, and considering Burton’s prose-induced writing style, it is difficult to dismiss entirely the argument that the book was meant to be both a therapeutic outlet for Burton and a witticism for the reader.  And yet it is equally problematic not to consider that “science” of the 17th century was based on mysticism, religion, magic and alchemy.

In the course of the 382 years since Burton’s book was published, we certainly consider ourselves a more enlightened society, more logical, more objective in nature.  And yet, Blue Monday theories abound about why western society is sad, shrouded in pseudo-scientific formulas and research of Twitter accounts in an attempt to answer the same question Burton wondered.  And although there is plenty of science behind what we now understand as depression, what generally entertains us is witty commentary about the human condition.

The Anatomy of Melancholy has been digitized and can be viewed and read using this link: http://cdm15960.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15960coll25/id/6979.

~ contributed by Seth Huffman

Seth Huffman completed a practicum with CHP in Fall 2013, earning his MLIS from Kent State University School of Library and Information Science. He worked with the CHP film collection creating metadata, rehousing and cleaning, and testing for acetate decay. Early in his work, he became especially interested in the films of Dr. L. Joseph Stone.

Dr. L. Joseph Stone was a child psychologist who worked for Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York.  Before starting his work with the Department of Child Study at Vassar in 1939, Stone worked for the Sarah Lawrence College. In the early part 1940 the department at Vassar College was given grants from the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation and the General Education Board.  Stone used the money from these grants to build a sound studio and an editing room.  These would become the foundation of the Vassar Film Program.  It was his dream to produce films on child behavior in order to teach others how to properly raise them and oversee their care.  In the late 1940s Josef Bohmer became the technical director of the Vassar Film Program and he and Stone worked closely for over twenty years.

During his time with Vassar, Stone completed a twenty-three film series entitled Studies of Normal Personality Development.  This series consist of seventeen films funded through the University and six that were funded through The Office of Economic Opportunity – Head Start Training films.  The series started in 1941 with the film Finger Painting and ended in 1967 with three Head Start Films, Organizing Free Play, Head Start to Confidence, and Discipline and Self-Control. Most of these films focused on children between the ages of two and eight and their raising.  

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In 1965 the filming of infants and their development in institutions was added to the film program.   This footage was filmed with the intention of creating another series focusing on infant development. 

While all films in this series are notable, there are some which standout as true treasures.  One film which shows the true time and effort that was needed for these films is entitled: This is Robert.  In preparation for this film, Stone filmed a child who was deemed “difficult” for five years.  Starting when Robert was two years old until the time he was seven, Robert was filmed with the hopes of capturing the developing personality.

Three other films that should be mentioned are: When Should Grownups Help and When Should Grownups Stop Fights from 1951, 1952 respectively.  These films along with And Then Ice Cream, 1950, made up a sub-series entitled: Preschool Incidences.

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In these films a clip is shown of a child in a situation and the viewer is asked to decide what action to take.  For example in the film When Should Grownups Help, a little girl is seen with a rope caught around her ankle and in the spokes of her tricycle.  The audience is then asked if they would help the little girl and to what extent.    

One of the last films created was Organizing Free Play.  This film shows scenes from around twelve Head Start and other preschools centers and the many activities that the children can choose to participate in.  These activities and the choices that the children make all are part of the “curriculum of discovery.

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The films in this series are fascinating for many reasons.   They provide a great window into past views on children and their development.   Each film is remarkable not only for the content shown, but for the time and care that Dr. Stone invested each one.  This series covers a period of over twenty-five years and throughout that time the amount of work that was done by Dr. Stone help lay the groundwork for future studies into child development.     

- contributed by Rhonda Rinehart

This month’s selection is by Rhonda Rinehart, Manager of Special Collections.

BOOK: Better Living Booklets for Parents and Teachers: Junior Life Adjustment Booklets/Life Adjustment Booklets, Published by Science Research Associates, Inc./Grolier, New York

Among CHP’s thousands of books, you will find tucked between larger, more prominent volumes, a smattering of thin, nearly undetectable booklets on parenting and child development.  Written by various authors for the Better Living Booklets series produced by the Science Research Associates, Inc. throughout the 1940s and 1950s, these booklets focus mainly on advising adults and caregivers on helping children adjust to the many social situations they will encounter on the road to adulthood.  Many more were also written specifically for children and adolescents to help them understand feelings they may be experiencing as they grow up and preparing them for decisions they will need to make as they adjust to becoming adults.  And still a few were written with the idea of helping adults understand themselves and their life situations.  Authors include child psychologist Mary Louise Northway; children’s author Doris Gates; essayist Sidonie M. Gruenberg; education specialist Ruth Strang; and novelist Hilda Sidney Krech.

As tools for comparison, these booklets offer a wealth of ideas and attitudes that can help us place psychology within its historical context.  Although many of the ideas portrayed in these booklets would certainly be considered outmoded, all of the topics are still relevant today.  Learning, development, feelings and emotions, relationships, and social issues are all topics that are discussed and written about today.  How we have come to understand these topics culturally, socially and professionally, is very different from attitudes in the 1940s and ‘50s.

Cover images of Junior Life Adjustment Booklets/Life Adjustment Booklets

Cover images of Junior Life Adjustment Booklets/Life Adjustment Booklets

The historical context in which these booklets were written places them firmly within an era that was beginning to see changes that would guide movements of the 1960s and 1970s.  Sex and gender roles, both common topics of these booklets, were steeped in traditional thinking about men and women, but the fact that these subjects were beginning to be discussed at all rather than the common practice of hiding them away indicates changing attitudes about these often-considered taboo subjects.

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Not every idea presented in this series is completely outmoded or naive, however.  Consider modern views about popularity, managing money, and educational testing and it could be argued that though our culture and society have changed in attitude about these topics, is it necessarily an improved, advanced or “better” one?

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As with any of the materials at the CHP, studying these booklets can allow us to see where we’ve been, compare where we are now and hopefully help us learn for the future.

The entire catalog list of Better Living Booklets titles available at the CHP can be viewed here:  http://tinyurl.com/mguwwgx

-Contributed by Ekaterina Redkina.

This coming Sunday, November 17, marks the birth of Soviet psychologist Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (1896-1934). Vygotsky is best known for the development of cultural-historical theory and for his contribution to various psychological fields: educational psychology, developmental psychology, psychology of art and others.

Vygotsky belongs to that group of authors that every student in psychology in Russia should know about. Being in the archives at CHP, I naturally wanted to know what content could be found here. I started my search with using finding aids and inventories to look for material concerning the members of the so-called Vygotsky circle. Its most famous members are Soviet psychologist and neurophysiologist A.R.Luria and Soviet developmental psychologist and founder of the “theory of activity” A.N.Leontiev.

I found multiple entries for these individuals in a variety of materials including correspondence, tests, conference materials, drawings, and postcards.

Author Number of entries
L.S.Vygotsky 30
A.N.Leontiev 5
A.R.Luria 72
A sketch of the brain by Luria, undated.

A sketch of the brain by Luria, undated.

Images of Moscow 1959. Supposedly, these belonged to Luria and were given to Ward C. Halstead.

Images of Moscow 1959. These belonged to Luria and were given to Ward C. Halstead.

At the second stage of this project I decided to enlarge my search to seek out as many Soviet and Russian psychologists and physiologists in the archives as possible.

This project has not been finished yet; however there is already a list of more than 200 entries. The list so far includes:

  • Soviet physiologists: I.P.Pavlov, V.M.Bekhterev, P.K.Anokhin.
  • Soviet psychologists: D.N.Uznadze, A.A. Smirnov, A.V.Zaporozhets.
  • Russian students of Kurt Lewin: Bluma Zeigarnik, Tamara Dembo and Gita Birenbaum.
  • Russian immigrant psychologists: Maria Rickers-Ovsiankina, Gregory Razran, Jacob Kasanin, Gleb Anrep, Eugenia Hanfman, N.I. Oseretsky.
S special issue of “New Masses”, November 10, 1942. The issue is dedicated to 25 years of the USSR.

A special issue of “New Masses”, November 10, 1942. The issue is dedicated to 25 years of the USSR.

 First page of an article about Ivan Pavlov in “New Masses”.

First page of an article about Ivan Pavlov in “New Masses”.

Very often, Soviet psychology is portrayed as being separate and isolated, whereas various materials suggest that there existed multiple connections between Soviet, American, and European psychologists. The influence was mutual: on the one hand many Soviet scientific achievements became popular and acceptable abroad, and on the other hand, foreign psychologists had an impact on the development of Soviet psychology. What is particularly interesting is how many of these connections were established: personal correspondence, professional relations growing into long lasting friendship, trips and personal visits.

Letter from Luria to Molly Harrower

Letter from Luria to Molly Harrower.

Letter from Harrower to Luria.

Letter from Harrower to Luria.

New Years postcard sent from Luria to Harrower.

New Years card sent from Luria to Harrower.

Tracing these connections between psychology internationally has much to add to our understanding of the history of the field. For me, examining the archival records of Soviet psychology has given me a sense of the history of Soviet psychology, but it has also really shifted my perspective on Soviet scientists. Browsing through the documents of famous scientists somehow makes them seem less like far-off geniuses that you admire in textbooks and published material, and more like real, interesting people!

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